Special Collection “Years of the Maritime Continent (YMC)”
Years of the Maritime Continent (YMC) is an international program with the ultimate goal of observing the weather-climate system of the Earth’s largest archipelago, the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent (MC), to improve understanding and prediction of its local variability and global impact. The program is endorsed by CLIVAR and other WCRP/WWRP groups. Its participants come from over 15 countries. The program started in 2017 and is continuing through and beyond 2021 with several international field campaigns in the region.
YMC has motivated a surge of research activities on various topics related to the MC. Publications on these topics have appeared in the journals of AMS, AGU, EGU, MSJ, RMS, and CGU. To better serve readers of these journals, the YMC Science Steering Committee is coordinating with these organizations on a cross-organization special collection of papers on YMC topics. A master list of this special collection is hosted on the YMC homepage (http://www.jamstec.go.jp/ymc/ymc_sp_collection.html).
The five themes of YMC are Atmospheric Convection, Upper-Ocean Processes and Air-Sea Interaction, Stratosphere-Troposphere Interaction, Aerosol, and Prediction improvement. Main activities of YMC include field observations, data sharing, modeling, prediction applications, and capacity building. Authors are encouraged to submit their manuscripts relevant to YMC to the participating journals of their choice. This special collection covers the period from January 2020 through December 2025. Authors of papers on YMC topics published in 2016-2019 in the participating journals may request their papers to be retroactively included in the special collection.
Chidong Zhang and Kunio Yoneyama
Co-Chairs of YMC Science Steering Committee
Special Collection "Sustainable Climate Change Adaptation (SUSADAPT)"
Deadline for submitting abstracts to the collection organizers: 15 September 2020
Deadline for submitting manuscripts to Weather, Climate, and Society (WCAS): 31 December 2020
This special collection (SC) is about the relationships between the goal of a sustainable development and the concept of climate change adaptation (CCA). In general, the idea is to investigate to what extent and in what ways the goal of a sustainable development may influence - positive or negative - the way society should adapt to climate change.
The specific discourse on sustainable climate change adaptation started less than 10 years ago, and still have rather few contributions – many of which focus on the need for CCA actions taking place in global south countries. In this special issue we want to focus on the consequences of applying the goal of sustainable development on CCA efforts and strategies in global north countries, but we also want to address the consequences for CCA actions taking place in global north countries of taking into account the perspectives on global justice embedded in the goal of a sustainable development. One aspect of the latter is to address the common destiny of climate change vulnerabilities in global north and global south created by the ever-increasing and pervasive internationalization of the global economy – referred to as transnational climate risks and vulnerabilities. We call for trans- as well as multi- and monodisciplinary contributions, and we are open to both theoretical as well as empirical oriented contributions.
Special Collection Organizers
The collection organizers are selected from the research partners of the Norwegian Research Centre on Sustainable Climate Change Adaptation (Noradapt). The Center seeks to build knowledge on sustainable climate change adaptation through a user-oriented approach, applying methods such as co-production of knowledge. Importantly, Noradapt holds that all adaptation efforts should be in accordance with the principles of sustainable development to avoid adding to the problem of climate change. The research partners of Noradapt are Western Norway Research Institute (leader of Noradapt); NORCE; Nordland research institute; CICERO Center for International Climate Research; Centre for Climate and Energy Transformation (CET) at the University of Bergen; Faculty of Social and Educational Sciences, Department of Geography at the Technical University of Norway (NTNU); SINTEF Community; and the Western Norway University of Applied Sciences (HVL).
Professor Carlo Aall, Western Norway Research Institute, +47 99 12 72 22, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr Mari Hanssen Korsbrekke, Western Norway Research Institute, +47 94 97 75 94, email@example.com
Professor Grete Hovelsrud, Nordlandsforskning, +47 95 80 60 46, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr Helene Amundsen, CICERO, +47 22 00 47 21, email@example.com
Dr Marte Lange Vik, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, +47 47 63 65 52, Marte.Lange.Vik@hvl.no
Reason for the Special Collection on sustainable climate change adaptation
In 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a collection of 17 goals and associated 169 targets and 232 indicators[i]. Only one of the SDG-goal (number 13) addresses specifically the climate issue (“Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts”), only five out of the SDG-targets address climate, and only one of which considers climate change adaptation: “Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate related hazards and natural disasters in all countries”. However, an important footnote is attached to goal 13: “Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change”. Thus, the challenge of aligning efforts of achieving the Paris agreement goals with the SDGs lies somewhere in between these two streams of policy-making.
The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) special report from 2012 on “Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change” discusses the need to shift from a modus operandi of climate change adaptation (CCA) from ‘adjustment’ to ‘transformation’ of society, defining the former as “the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects, in order to moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities” and the latter as “the altering of fundamental attributes of a system (including value systems; regulatory, legislative, or bureaucratic regimes; financial institutions; and technological or biological systems)”[ii]. If moving CCA efforts from an ‘adjustment’ to a ‘transformative’ modus operandi, it seems fair to expect that the potential for creating conflicts between CCA and other SDGs will - all other factors alike -increase.
A growing amount of literature exists on the challenges relating to transformation in the face of climae change, but most of this relates to either mitigation or adaptation. If moving CCA efforts from an ‘adjustment’ to a ‘transformative’ modus operandi, it seems fair to expect that the potential for creating conflicts between adaptation and mitigation, between CCA and other susainable development goals – and even within CCA - will increase. Thus, addressing these issues is urgent as the time is running out for achieving the goals of the Paris agreement.
Since the above cited IPCC report from 2012, an increasing number of studies have questioned the chances of reaching the 1.5 or even the 2-degree goal[iii]. Parallel to this, the evidences of current negative climate change impacts have increased, as have evidence of increasing CCA needs[iv], adding to the potential of conflicts between CCA and SDGs. Furthermore, if society fails to conduct deliberate transformative CCA efforts, and society is instead affected by a non-voluntary transformation[v], the chances that CCA efforts will conflict with major SDGs increase even more.
The goal of a sustainable development was launched in 1987 by the United Nations (UN) World Commission on Environment and Development (UNWCED)[vi]. The commission outlined two major environmental policy approaches in its report: The effect- and the cause-oriented approach. The former represents an attitude to environmental policy, acts and institutions with the main emphasis on mitigating environmental effects; whereas the latter focuses on the roots causing these effects. The UNWCED emphasized that the former had prevailed until then, whereas the latter must be included in any policy approach aimed at promoting a sustainable development. 30 years after this point was made by the UN Commission it is uncontroversial to state that environmental policy still seems to be stuck within the effect-oriented approach[vii]. The quest for shifting towards a cause-oriented environmental policy also applies for CCA, which in the case of this special collection would be to discuss societal drivers that produce an increase in exposure to the anticipated negative effects of climate change, and furthermore to discuss how to influence these drivers in order to avoid such negative effects.
The specific discourse on sustainable climate change adaptation started less than 10 years ago, and still have rather few contributions – many of which focus on the need for CCA actions taking place in global south countries[viii], [ix]. In this special collection we want to focus on the consequences of applying the goal of sustainable development on CCA efforts and strategies in global north countries, in particular we want to focus on the consequences of taking into account the perspectives on global justice embedded in the goal of a sustainable development. One aspect of the latter is to address the common destiny of climate change vulnerabilities in global north and global south created by the ever-increasing and pervasive internationalization of the global economy – referred to as transnational climate risks and vulnerabilities[x].
We call for trans- as well as multi- and monodisciplinary contributions, and we are open to both theoretical as well as empirical oriented contributions.
[ii] IPCC (2012): Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[iii] Brown, C. et al. (2019) Achievement of Paris climate goals unlikely due to time lags in the land system, Nature Climate Change, doi: 10.1038/s41558-019-0400-5
[iv] IPCC (2018): Global Warming of 1.5 ºC. Special report to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/
[v] Nelson, D.R.; Adger, W.N.; Brown, K. (2007): Adaptation to environmental change: Contributions of a resilience framework. Ann. Rev. Environ. Resour, 32, 395–419
[vi] 1. WCED (1987). Our common future: The world commission on environment and development. Oxford: Oxford University Press
[vii] Santarius, T., Walnum, H-J., Aall, C. (2016): Introduction: Rebound Research in a Warming World. In Aall, C., Santarius, T., Walnum, H.J. (eds) (2016): How to improve energy and climate policies. Understanding the role of rebound effects. London: Springer. pp 1-17.
[viii] Brown, K. (2011). Sustainable adaptation: An oxymoron?. Climate and Development, 3(1), 21-31. https://doi.org/10.3763/cdev.2010.0062.
[ix] Eriksen, S., Aldunce, P., Bahinipati, C.S., Martins, R.D., Molefe, J.I., Nhemachena, C., O'Brien, K., Olorunfemi, F., Park, J., Sygna, L., & Ulsrud, K. (2011) When not every response to climate change is a good one: Identifying principles for sustainable adaptation. Climate and Development 3(1), 7-20.
[x] Persson, Å. and Dzebo, A. (2019). Special issue: Exploring global and transnational governance of climate change adaptation. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10784-019-09440-z.