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Data Archiving and Citation

(updated 4 December 2017)

Please refer to Dataset References for guidelines and examples of how to reference and cite data according to AMS style.


The American Meteorological Society (AMS) is committed to promoting full, open, and timely access to the environmental data, associated metadata, and derived data products that underlie scientific findings (see the 2013 AMS policy statement). These data and metadata must be properly cited and readily available to the scientific community and the general public. At initial submission, authors must confirm that the datasets are archived and cited/referenced properly. Likewise, peer review editors are asked to ensure that this AMS expectation is being met.

The Coalition on Publishing Data in the Earth and Space Sciences (COPDESS) connects Earth and space science publishers and data facilities to meet the goal of open, available, and useful data (see their statement of commitment). COPDESS, of which AMS is a member organization, also provides a directory of repositories for publishers and recommended best practices around data and identifiers. These best practices are the basis for the AMS guidelines.

Archiving Data

AMS discourages the archiving of data on personal servers and websites because of their lack of permanence. Instead, authors should archive their data in an established repository that follows best practices and can ensure the longevity and continued utility of datasets. Lists of repositories are available from:

If data centers are not available or appropriate for particular datasets, authors should investigate other archiving options, including their local institutional library. AMS also allows data to be published as supplemental material, although this option should be considered only after data centers and university libraries are investigated. If none of these options are available, authors must provide a transparent process to make the data available to anyone upon request.

AMS recognizes that sharing data may not be feasible in some instances, such as in studies that collect sensitive data about human subjects. Authors must comply with applicable institutional review board and funding agency policies and regulations when collecting human subject data. Any other limitations or restrictions on sharing data, such as proprietary or other legal restrictions, must be reported to the journal editor at initial submission.

Citing Data

Refer to the AMS Dataset References for guidelines and examples of how to reference and cite data according to AMS style.

Per the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles, data citations should be listed in the reference section and enable readers to identify and find the dataset(s). The citation should adhere to emerging practices and include as much of the following information as possible: Dataset or software authors/producers, release date; title; version; archive/distributor, and the locator/identifier (doi preferred, or URL), and year.

Datasets or software should not be formally referenced or listed in the acknowledgments section. However, the acknowledgments can include a general statement indicating where the data are available and any issues regarding availability (e.g., “all data used herein are listed in the references or archived in xxx repositories”; see below). The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) has produced data citation recommendations for the Earth system sciences that includes general guidance, examples, and information on each individual citation element listed below.

Many data providers request that users cite their data in particular ways. Datasets that are not curated or cannot be reliably made available by request should not be cited in AMS publications but should be noted through an in-text reference to unpublished data, as noted in AMS Dataset References.