[updated 18 June 2015]

A few of the most common reference types are shown here. Each in-text citation must have a corresponding reference, and each reference listed must be cited in the text.  References should be arranged alphabetically without numbering.


Last name and initials of author(s) (if nine or more, the first author is followed by "and Coauthors"), year of publication, title of paper, title of journal (italicized),* volume of journal (bolded), issue or citation number (only if required for identification), page range, and DOI (if available).

Collins, W. D., and Coauthors, 2006: The formulation and atmospheric simulation of the
        Community Atmosphere Model Version 3 (CAM3). J. Climate, 19, 2144–2161,

Kanamitsu, M., W. Ebisuzaki, J. Woollen, S.-K. Yang, J. J. Hnilo, M. Fiorino, and
        G. L. Potter, 2002: NCEP–DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteor.
83, 1631–1643, doi:10.1175/BAMS-83-11-1631.

Rayner, N. A., D. E. Parker, E. B. Horton, C. K. Folland, L. V. Alexander, D. P. Rowell,
        E. C. Kent, and A. Kaplan, 2003: Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea
        ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys.
108, 4407, doi:10.1029/2002JD002670.

AMS journals are abbreviated as follows:

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society: Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.
Earth Interactions
: Earth Interact.
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology
: J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol.
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology
: J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.
Journal of Climate
: J. Climate
Journal of Hydrometeorology
: J. Hydrometeor.
Journal of Physical Oceanography
: J. Phys. Oceanogr.
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
: J. Atmos. Sci.
Monthly Weather Review
: Mon. Wea. Rev.
Weather and Forecasting
: Wea. Forecasting
Weather, Climate, and Society
: Wea. Climate Soc.

The Chemical Abstracts Service has a handy online tool that you can use to find journal abbreviations. Searching for only one word at a time (for example, “meteorology”) seems to work best.

AMS style deviates from CASSI’s on several words, as shown in the following table:

Where AMS differs from CASSI    
American Am. Amer.
Climate Clim. Climate
Meteorological Meteorol. Meteor.
Japan Jpn. Japan
Quarterly Q. Quart.
Royal R. Roy.
Weather Weather Wea.


Last name and initials of author(s), year of publication of book, title of book (italicized), publisher’s name, and total pages.

Wallace, J. M., and P. V. Hobbs, 1977: Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey.
        Academic Press, 350 pp.


Last name and initials of author(s) of the chapter, year of publication of book, title of the chapter, title of book (italicized), name of editor(s), publisher’s name, and page range.

Anthes, R. A., 1986: The general question of predictability. Mesoscale Meteorology
        and Forecasting,
P. S. Ray, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 636–656.

For a chapter in a book that is part of a monograph series, the format is similar but includes the volume and number of the monograph.

Arakawa, A., 1993: Closure assumption in the cumulus parameterization problem. The
        Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models, Meteor. Monogr.,
        46, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1–16.


References should be to peer-reviewed literature whenever possible. Technical reports, conference proceedings, and other “gray literature” should be referenced only when no other source of the material is available, and an “available at” address or URL should be provided for reports and dissertations. Here are some examples:

Conference proceedings, preprints, and extended abstracts

Last name and initials of author(s); year of publication; title of paper; indication of the publication as a preprints, proceedings, or extended abstracts volume (as of 2002, all AMS conference preprints are online only, so we omit this for newer AMS conference papers); name of conference volume (italicized); city and state/country where conference was held; conference sponsor’s name; page range or paper number; and URL or DOI, if available.

Idowu, A. O., 2007: The impact of an earthquake-generated tsunami on the earth-
        atmosphere system: Year 2004 Indian Ocean case history example. 21st Conf.
        on Hydrology,
San Antonio, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., JP1.1. [Available online at]

Liu, Y., V. Bringi, and M. Maki, 2006: Improved rain attenuation correction algorithms
        for radar reflectivity and differential reflectivity with adaptation to drop shape model
        variation. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symp. 2006,
        Denver, CO, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1910–1913,

Author(s), publication year: Dissertation/thesis title. Dissertation/thesis, Thesis Department (needed only if M.S. thesis), University, total pages, and URL, if available.

Hirschberg, P., 1988: The saline flow into the Atlantic. M.S. thesis, Dept. of
        Oceanographic Studies, The Pennsylvania State University, 207 pp.

Author(s), publication year: Report/note/memo title. Report/Note/Memo Name and number, total pages, and URL or DOI, if available.

Skamarock, W. C., and Coauthors, 2008: A description of the Advanced Research
        WRF version 3. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-475+STR, 113 pp,

Web page
Author(s)/Authoring Organization, year: Document name. Organization/publisher (if different from author), date accessed, DOI/URL.

NOAA, 2015: Elusive El Niño arrives. Accessed 12 March 2015. [Available online at]

In-Text Citations

The in-text citation should consist of the author's name and year of publication [e.g., “according to Rossby (1945),” or “as shown by an earlier study (Rossby 1945)”]. When there are two or more papers by the same author in the same year, the distinguishing suffix (a,b, etc.) should be added.

If the citation is for a reference with two authors, use both author names [e.g., Fritsch and Heideman (1989)].

References with three or more authors are always cited as the first author's name followed by "et al." [e.g., Kalnay et al. (1996)].