The record maximum of Antarctic sea ice resulted chiefly from anomalous winds that transported cold air masses away from the Antarctic continent, enhancing thermodynamic sea ice production far offshore.
It is likely that human influences on climate increased the odds of the extreme high pressure anomalies south of Australia in August 2014 that were associated with frosts, lowland snowfalls and reduced rainfall.
Anthropogenic activity has increased the risk of Australian heatwaves during late autumn similar to the 2014 event by up to 23 fold, compared to climate conditions under no anthropogenic influence.
The record warm Australian spring of 2014 would likely not have occurred without increases in CO2 over the last 50 years working in concert with an upper-level wave train.
Anthropogenic climate change very likely increased the likelihood of prolonged heat waves like that experienced in Adelaide in January 2014 by at least 16%. The influence for Melbourne is less clear.
Climate model simulations for 2014 indicate anthropogenic climate change very likely increased the likelihood of hot and very hot November days in Brisbane by at least 25% and 44% respectively.
The risk of an extreme 5-day July rainfall event over Northland, New Zealand, such as was observed in early July 2014, has likely increased due to anthropogenic influence on climate.
The absence of western North Pacific tropical cyclone activity during August 2014 was apparently related to strong easterly wind anomalies induced by combined negative intraseasonal and Pacific decadal oscillation phases.
New climate simulations suggest that the extremely active 2014 Hawaiian hurricane season was made substantially more likely by anthropogenic forcing, but that natural variability of El Niño was also partially involved.
Northeast Asia experienced a severe drought in summer 2014. Sea surface temperature forcing may have increased the risk of low precipitation, but model biases preclude reliable attribution to anthropogenic forcing.
CMIP5 models suggest that human influence has increased the probability of regional high SST extremes over the western tropical and northeast Pacific Ocean during the 2014 calendar year and summer.
A comparison of observations and multiple global climate models indicates human influence has increased the chance of extreme hot springs in Korea such as the 2014 event by two to three times.
The Himalayan snowstorm of October 2014 resulted from the unusual merger of a tropical cyclone with an upper trough, and their collective changes under climate warming have increased the odds for similar events.
Ensemble modelling of the East African 2014 long rains season suggests no anthropogenic influence on the likelihood of low rainfall but clear signals in other drivers of drought.
Anthropogenic warming contributed to the 2014 East African drought by increasing East African and west Pacific temperatures, and increasing the gradient between standardized western and central Pacific SST causing reduced rainfall, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture.
Of three identified proximate drought factors, climate change does not appear important for two. The third factor, western Pacific SSTs, exhibits a strong warming trend but attribution is an open question.
A combined modeling and observational study suggests that the persistent rainfall deficit during the 2014 rainy season in southern Levant was made more likely due to anthropogenic climate change.
According to CMIP5 models, the risk of record annual mean warmth in European, northeast Pacific, and northwest Atlantic regions--as occurred in 2014--has been greatly increased by anthropogenic climate change.
Extreme winter rainfall in the United Kingdom becomes eight times more likely when the atmospheric circulation resembles winter 2013/14, whereas anthropogenic influence is only discernible in extremes with a shorter duration.
Southeast Brazil experienced profound water shortages in 2014/15. Anthropogenic climate change is not found to be a major influence on the hazard, whereas increasing population and water consumption increased vulnerability.