## FAQ for LaTeX Authors

The line numbering commands are included in the ametsocV5.cls file. If you are not using ametsocV5.cls (and we strongly recommend that you do), you need to add the \usepackage{lineno} and \linenumbers commands to your .tex file before the \begin{document} command and after any \usepackage{amsmath} commands. To correct the line numbering around display equations, you must add the following snippet of code to your .tex file or to the end of the .sty file you are using:

\newcommand*\patchAmsMathEnvironmentForLineno[1]{%
\expandafter\let\csname old#1\expandafter\endcsname\csname #1\endcsname
\expandafter\let\csname oldend#1\expandafter\endcsname\csname end#1\endcsname
\renewenvironment{#1}%
{\linenomath\csname old#1\endcsname}%
{\csname oldend#1\endcsname\endlinenomath}}%
\newcommand*\patchBothAmsMathEnvironmentsForLineno[1]{%
\patchAmsMathEnvironmentForLineno{#1}%
\patchAmsMathEnvironmentForLineno{#1*}}%
\AtBeginDocument{%
\patchBothAmsMathEnvironmentsForLineno{equation}%
\patchBothAmsMathEnvironmentsForLineno{align}%
\patchBothAmsMathEnvironmentsForLineno{flalign}%
\patchBothAmsMathEnvironmentsForLineno{alignat}%
\patchBothAmsMathEnvironmentsForLineno{gather}%
\patchBothAmsMathEnvironmentsForLineno{multline}%
\patchBothAmsMathEnvironmentsForLineno{eqnarray}%}

If you would prefer a manual solution, then wrap each display equation with the linenomath environment. For example:

\begin{linenomath*}
\label{eq:4}
{\cal L}_{fw}[{\cal A}]\;=\;\sum_\alpha {\cal S}_\alpha

\end{linenomath*}

Note that use of the obsolete "$$" command for display math will also cause gaps in the line numbering. See FAQ #3. • For bold math for vectors and matrices, use \pmb. • For script letters, use \mathcal. [*Note: Because the \usepackage{mathptmx} is built into ametsoc.cls to achieve Times New Roman font, this also changes the mathcal fonts to formal script font. To achieve the standard "calligraphic" font, add \DeclareMathAlphabet{\altmathcal}{OMS}{cmsy}{m}{n} to the preamble and use the command \altmathcal instead of \mathcal for any letters that you want to appear in the standard calligraphic font.] • For double-line (blackboard) font, use \mathbb. No, the “$$” command is obsolete and should never be used. The “$$” command (which is a plain TeX command) in your .tex file must be replaced with “$“ and “$”, \begin{displaymath} and \end{displaymath}, \begin{equation*} and \end{equation*}, or some other math display command. Note that use of "$$" will also cause gaps in the line numbering (see FAQ #1).

Do not confuse this with the standard "$" math command, which should be used for inline math (e.g.,$10^{-6}$). The AMS discourages authors from using the hyperref package within their LaTeX documents as we do not want active links in submissions. Use of the hyperref package may prevent your paper from building a PDF in Editorial Manager and may result in your submission being returned to you for editing. Please use the \url{} command instead. If you need to create separate paragraphs in the abstract, you can use a line break and the \indent command to give the appearance of separate paragraphs, e.g., \abstract{First paragraph text.\\ \indent Second paragraph text.} Please note, however, that AMS style is for abstracts to be one paragraph only, so multiple paragraphs will be combined into one single paragraph during copy editing. The AMS LaTeX template follows AMS style for section numbering, which means that subsections will be defined only by a letter/number and will not include the higher-level section/subsection number/letter (i.e., a. Subsection title and not 1.a. Subsection title). If you are referencing sections within running text, you must include reference commands for both the section and the subsection, e.g.: "as seen in section \ref{section1}\ref{subsection1a}." which will result in "as seen in section 1a." Cross-referencing labels cannot be used for appendix sections as the numbering will be incorrect. Please use plain text for appendix section callouts within the text of the paper. The BibTeX program is responsible for formatting the references. After running the LaTeX or pdfLaTeX command once, make sure you run the BibTeX command, then run the LaTeX or pdfLaTeX command TWO times to clear up any dependencies. To retain capitalization in article or book titles, use curly braces around the letter/word/phrase you want to retain its capitalization (e.g., title = {Coexistence of equatorial coupled modes of {ENSO}}). Note: If you are using the ametsoc.cls file, the “rotating” package is already included. • In order to lay out a table in landscape, you need to add the “rotating” package (\usepackage{rotating}) and then create the table using the “sidewaystable” environment instead of the “table” environment (e.g., \begin{sidewaystable} instead of \begin{table}). • In order to lay out a figure in landscape, you need to add the “rotating” package (\usepackage{rotating}) and then create the table using the “sidewaysfigure” environment instead of the “figure” environment (e.g., \begin{sidewaysfigure} instead of \begin{figure}). • You must also add the endfloat.cfg file to the folder in which your LaTeX document is located. This file is necessary so that the endfloat package will recognize any landscape tables or figures. TeX Live 2018 now flags unrecognized Unicode characters that previous versions of TeX Live ignored. These characters are usually inserted when text copied from another source is pasted into a LaTeX file. The most common errors look like this: ! Package inputenc Error: Unicode character - (U+96) (inputenc) not set up for use with LaTeX. The solution is to either manually replace the Unicode characters in your .tex and .bib files (you can use your log file to locate the problematic Unicode characters) or to define the Unicode characters using the \DeclareUnicodeCharacter command in the preamble of the .tex file (again, the log file will tell you which Unicode characters need to be defined). You must add the endfloat.cfg file to the folder in which your LaTeX document is located. This file is necessary so that the endfloat package will recognize any landscape tables or figures. • You may apply commands such as \small or \footnotesize to make your caption or table font smaller and thus shrink the size of your caption/table. As long as the text is readable, it is fine to have smaller text. • To split your caption and table across two pages, enclose each in separate table commands, as shown below: \begin{table}[t] \caption{Table caption here.}\label{table1} \end{table} \begin{table} \begin{tabular}{lccc} . . . . \end{tabular} \end{table} • Note that the longtable command conflicts with endfloat, so you should avoid using longtable if possible. • If your table cannot be shrunk down to fit on one page, you may treat it as separate tables in order to break it across pages without using the longtable command, as shown below: \begin{table}[t] \caption{Table caption here.}\label{table1} \begin{tabular}{lccc} . . . . \end{tabular} \end{table} \begin{table*} \begin{tabular}{lccc} . . . . \end{tabular} \end{table*} Because of the endfloat package, the standard table footnote commands do not function properly. To work around this, simply insert footnote-sized text below the table and insert the corresponding superscript letters as needed throughout the table, for example: \begin{table}[h] \caption{Table caption here.}\label{t1} \begin{center} \begin{tabular}{lccc} \topline$N$&$X$&$Y$&$Z$\\ \midline 0000 & 0000 & 0010$^a$& 0000 \\ 0005 & 0004 & 0012 & 0000 \\ 0010 & 0009 & 0020 & 0000 \\ \botline \end{tabular} \end{center} \footnotesize{$^a\$ First footnote text.}
\end{table}

Use of the subcaption and subfigure packages is discouraged for submissions to the AMS. Figures with multiple panels should be submitted with all panels included in one figure file. Use of the subcaption/subfigure commands may prevent your paper from building a PDF in Editorial Manager and may result in your submission being returned to you for editing.

To put your figure and caption on separate pages, enclose each in separate figure commands, as shown below:
\begin{figure}[t]
\noindent\includegraphics[width-39pc,angle=0]{figure01.pdf}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}
\caption{Enter the caption for your figure here.}\label{f1}
\end{figure}

The \cite and \ref commands are “fragile” commands. They must be protected using the \protect command when used in a caption. For example:
\begin{figure}
. . .
\caption{The graph of the temperature profile given by \protect\ref{some_eqn} developed by \protect\citet{Anderson98}.}
\end{figure}

• If you are using the ametsoc.cls or ametsocV5.cls file, special commands are needed to manually change the numbering to ensure that each appendix figure or table is numbered as part of the respective appendix and not as a continuation of the main paper. Use the command \appendcaption{} instead of the usual \caption{} to adjust the numbering; e.g., for Table A1, you would use the command \appendcaption{A1}.

• Note that the normal \ref{} command cannot be used to cite appendixes or appendix figures or tables, as the numbering will be incorrect. Callouts for appendixes and appendix figures or tables in the text will need to be written out as plain text, e.g., Appendix A, Fig. A1, Table A1. [This does not apply to appendix equations, for which the normal \ref{} commands can be used.]

The appendix figures and tables need to be physically placed at the end of the .tex document with the other figures and tables (instead of with the appendix text) in the order that they should appear (i.e., main text tables first, then appendix tables, then main text figures, then appendix figures).

To create a bulleted list, you should use the standard LaTeX itemize command, for example:

\begin{itemize}
\item First bullet text.
\item Second bullet text.
\end{itemize}

To create a numbered list, you should use the standard LaTeX enumerate command, for example:

\begin{enumerate}
\item First numbered item.
\item Second numbered item.
\end{enumerate}

To get accented letters such as “ñ” to appear correctly in a reference list, you must put curly braces around the entire command, not just around the letter, e.g., author={Ana Nu{\~n}ez}.

See the Citations section of the amsdocs.pdf file for instructions on how to add text within a citation.

The parentheses around the citations are a built-in feature of the natbib package. To prevent double parentheses, do not add your own parentheses around the citations.

The AMS LaTeX template reserves footnote symbols on the title page for special affiliations or footnotes (such as a current affiliation or a "retired" footnote), so for clarity during submission, we prefer that that authors and affiliations are grouped as shown in the LaTeX template, even if the result is lengthy or repetitious.

Multiple affiliations for the same author should all be included in the \affiliation or \extraaffil commands, separated by a comma and the word "and".

Author order should be maintained, but if two or more consecutive authors have the same affiliation(s), the author names can be grouped together in the same \author or \extraauthor command.

Examples:

\author{J. Smith}

\affiliation{Physical Sciences Division, NOAA/ESRL, and CIRES, Boulder, Colorado}

\extraauthor{L. Wang}

\extraaffil{Physical Oceanography Laboratory/CIMST, and Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction and Climate Laboratory, Ocean University of China, and Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China, and Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California}

\extraauthor{A. Brown and C. Green}

\extraaffil{Physical Sciences Division, NOAA/ESRL, and CIRES, Boulder, Colorado}

\extraauthor{C. Zhu}

\extraaffil{Physical Oceanography Laboratory/CIMST, and Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction and Climate Laboratory, Ocean University of China, and Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China}