Chapter News
January 2002


James Peronto, President of the local chapter, called the first meeting of the new season to order on October 4th, 2001. The meeting was held at the Aviation Technology Center at Merrill Field in Anchorage.

Jim Peronto introduced the Executive Committee: Nathan Jeruzal, Vice-President and Arleen Jancic, Treasurer, were present. Louise Williams, Secretary, was unable to be present. After the Executive Committee introductions, the regular members gave a brief introduction of themselves.

With our new Webmaster, Karl Volz, we also have a new web address for the chapter, which is hosted by the Alaska Experimental Forecast Facility through the University of Alaska Anchorage. The new web address is located at: Any new ideas, comments, or questions having to do with the web page can be passed along by going to the web page link.

After chapter business, Peronto went on to introduce our guest speaker for the meeting, Mr. Garth Lenz, a pararescuer with the Alaska Air National Guard. Mr. Lenz began the talk by mentioning that rescues by pararescuers began during World War II. The group of Alaska pararescuers that Mr. Lenz is a part of, specialize in aviation and arctic weather rescues. At the present time, there are around 300 other pararescuers across the world doing the same thing. Mr. Lenz stated that the main goal of all pararescuers worldwide is to pull people out of enemy territory. Civilian rescues are very important and are used as "on the job" training for official purposes. Typically in a rescue operation, a responding agency such as police or the Coast Guard is first on the scene. The pararescuers, if needed, are then called in to help plan and carry out a rescue. The pararescuers usually show up in a C-130 plane, and use the plane as a base for rescue operations. These planes fly at higher altitudes and "oversee" all other aircraft involved to keep the operations organized.

During an average year, the Alaska pararescuers are involved in about 125 rescue missions/operations. Each group of pararescuers across the world has different situations and adversities to overcome in rescues. Pararescuers in Alaska can face adversities including weather, terrain, and lack of access to certain areas. Adverse weather in Alaska can include: brutal cold temperatures, hurricane force winds, blizzards, thunderstorms, severe air turbulence, low ceilings near mountains, cold water temperatures, and high seas. The pararescuers are trained in dealing with all the weather previously mentioned and more.

Different pararescuers across the world have been involved in many high profile operations including a rescue during the protests in China at Tiannemen Square, rescue of boats which were included in the book and movie "The Perfect Storm", NASA rescue and recovery operations, missing personnel in Iraq during the Gulf War, and most recently, rescue missions in the World Trade Center disaster.

Questions were presented by members to Mr. Lenz after his presentation. Peronto presented Mr. Lenz with a honorary Anchorage AMS Chapter membership and a 2002 Alaska Weather calendar that was donated by member Jim Green.

The next meeting has not been determined yet. It will however be during November or December, and will be announced.

Peronto then adjourned the meeting.---Nathan Jeruzal.


The Asheville Chapter of the American Meteorological Society held its second meeting for 2001-2002 in Laurel Forum, Karpen Hall, University of North Carolina at Asheville (UNCA), at 7PM on Thursday, October 25th, 2001. The president of the Chapter, Mr. John Louer, presided over the meeting. Fourteen people attended.

Guest Speaker

Mr. Louer introduced Mr. Tom Ross of the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) as our guest speaker for the night. He received his training in meteorology from Penn State University. In 1976, he was employed as a meteorologist at Accu Weather Inc. In 1985, he joined the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as a meteorologist with the National Climatic Data Center. In 1990 he became principal meteorologist in the Research Customer Service Group. Mr. Ross has presented numerous papers about NCDC products and services and educational outreach activities at conferences and scientific meetings. He also is a spokesperson for NCDC and has been interviewed by the news media on a local and national level. Currently, Mr. Ross is involved at NCDC with various outreach and educational activities. Mr. Ross's presentation was on the history of NCDC, as NCDC is celebrating its 50th anniversary this month. Mr. Ross presented the Chapter with two large hurricane posters and several brochures. Following his presentation, Mr. Louer presented him with an engraved book clock on behalf of the Chapter.---Jeffrey W. Budai.


The first meeting of the 2001/2002 chapter year was held on Thursday, September 13, 2001, at 7:30 p.m. at the North Carolina Supercomputing Center in Research Triangle Park.

Secretary Michael Brennan of North Carolina State University introduced the evening's speaker, Dr. Gary Lackmann, Assistant Professor of Meteorology at N. C. State. Dr. Lackmann came to NCSU in 1998 from SUNY Brockport and received his Ph.D. in Atmospheric Science from SUNY-Albany in 1995. His presentation was based on recent research involving freezing and melting processes with changing precipitation type and how well numerical weather prediction (NWP) models deal with those processes.

Three scenarios were presented. The first concerned snow melting aloft and absorbing latent heat. This can create a deep isothermal layer at 0ºC if the precipitation is heavy enough for an extended period of time with weak horizontal temperature advection. Examples of this scenario include snowstorms in Seattle, WA in 1974, Albany, NY in 1987, and a case of localized heavy snow in Great Britain in 1942.

The various operational NWP models handle this process differently. The Eta model accounts for the melting of snow aloft, however a correct distribution of the latent cooling is tied to accurate quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF). The NGM does not account for melting aloft, as it contains no ice physics.

The second process discussed was melting of snow at the surface. This process would again lead to latent cooling as the melting snowflakes absorb heat. The Eta land-surface model uses the lowest level air temperature to determine precipitation type. Since snow can occur when near-surface temperatures (and temperatures at the lowest model layer) are >0ºC, the model assumes rain is falling, and therefore does not account for the heat absorbed by melting snow at the surface. This produces a warm bias in the model.

Finally, the process of rain freezing at the surface was discussed. None of the operational NCEP models currently account for the latent heat released by freezing of rain aloft (during sleet), and their representation of heat released by freezing of rain at the surface is often incorrect. Freezing rain releases latent heat, which warms temperatures near the surface. This heating explains why the majority of freezing rain events are short-lived, as there must be a source of cold or dry air into the freezing rain region to offset the heat released by the freezing raindrops. This phenomena leads to a cold bias of forecast surface temperatures in the Eta model, where freezing rain is only recognized at the surface if the lowest model level is above freezing and the surface temperature is below.

The presentation ended around 8:45 p.m., and after a couple of questions, the meeting ended at 8:50 p.m.---Michael J. Brennan.


The October 2001 meeting of the Chicago Chapter of the American Meteorological Society was held on Tuesday, October 2nd. The meeting was held on the campus of Lewis University in Romeoville, Illinois.

Chapter President Robert Wonderling began the meeting by introducing himself as the new Chapter President. After introductions of all in attendance, the chapter secretary and treasurer provided reports. Wonderling then introduced the guest speaker for the evening, Mr. Timothy McThenia. Mr. McThenia is a Distribution Dispatch Manager for the Commonwealth Edison Company which produces and distributes the majority of the electricity for northern Illinois. Commonwealth Edison is a subsidiary of Exelon which is the largest producer of nuclear power in the United States.

McThenia described the Commonwealth Edison distribution system as well as what measures are taken if a power outage occurs. Besides those outages created from severe storms, many outages occur due to line breaks from construction and landscaping projects, and animals that damage wires or other components.

McThenia displayed how the impact to customers from outages is minimized by re-routing the power distribution.

The importance of accurate and timely weather information for preparing repair crews and moving them to the optimal location was discussed. Commonwealth Edison utilizes several weather sources including a lightning strike display system and private weather consultants, such as Murray and Trettel, Inc.

The presentation ended with a lively question and answer period as Commonwealth Edison supplies the majority of the chapter members with electricity.

Wonderling ended the meeting by announcing that the November meeting will be held on November 7 in DeKalb, Illinois and will be a joint meeting with the Northern Illinois University AMS student chapter.

The November 2001 meeting of the Chicago Chapter of the AMS was held at Northern Illinois University in DeKalb, Illinois. It has become a tradition to hold a meeting in conjunction with the University in order to allow NIU faculty and students to present previous or ongoing research projects to Chicago Chapter members.

Dr. Jie Song opened the meeting by welcoming Chicago Chapter members. Dr. Song announced the meeting would consist of four separate presentations.

Dr. Song first introduced Dr. Mace Bentley. Dr. Bentley's presentation was "A Four-Year Climatology of U.S. Derecho Producing Mesoscale Convective Systems: 1996-1999." Dr. Bentley's presentation was a follow-up on the information he had provided at a meeting last year.

It was explained that Derechos are convectively induced wind storms associated with an MCS and have a length of at least 400 km on it's major axis. Bow echoes are also prevelent.

Damage reports are utilized in tracking these systems. One of the criteria for determining if a Derecho occurred is that there must be no more than two hours between wind damage reports.

During the 1996 to 1999 period, an increase in Derecho activity from the Dakotas through the Ohio Valley was evident. Most Derechos occur during the months of May through July. The summer season peak is in the Upper Midwest while a cool season peak exists in the Mid Mississippi River Valley.

The second presentation, "Modeling Atmosphere-Land Surface Exchanges with Remote Sensing" was given by Dr. Song. Dr. Song worked on a research project in conjunction with the Department of Energy. One part of the project dealt with evapotranspiration. Evapotranspiration is difficult to assess due to unevenness of precipitation and the diversity of vegetation.

The project focused on the Walnut River Watershed east of Wichita, Kansas. The Watershed possessed a wide range of surface conditions. The project utilized three remote sensing sites, eight meteorological monitoring sites which included wind profilers, satellite data and aircraft observations.

The goal of the project is to produce a model that will accurately predict soil moisture.

The third presentation was from Jason Finley, an undergraduate student at NIU. Finley's presentation was on "Investigating Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of the Nocturnal Low-Level Jet."

The low level jet provides for energy and moisture transport. Wind speeds decrease above the jet. Sodar and wind profiler data was utilized. In order to be classified as a low level jet, the wind speed maximum had to be greater than 10 meters per second and the height of the jet had to be less than 2 km.

Finley's research determined that the low level jet winds are primarily from the southwest and that terrain has an influence on the jet. Stronger jets are more consistently from the southwest and develop later at night. The strongest low level jets occurred between 7 and 8z.

The final presentation was from Melissa Bukovsky, a recent recipient of an AMS undergraduate scholarship. Bukovsky's presentation was "An Evaluation of Eta Model Forecast of Mesoscale Convective Systems." This research was performed while she was working in a research position at the National Severe Storms Lab.

The Mesoscale Convective Systems studied were long lasting, forward propagating systems. The model's grid scale versus convective precipitation forecasts were considered. Bukovsky showed examples of model progression of MCS's versus archived radar imagery. One of the determinations was that the Eta model forecast skill was highly variable, especially at 00z.

The meeting concluded with Chicago Chapter members introducing themselves to the students and discussing the current employment outlook for meteorologists.---Mark T. Carroll.


On 16 October 2001 the meteorology club held its second meeting of the new school year. Members of the club talked about the internships they held this summer and the experience they gained from it. They discussed with the club the different techniques forecasters use and what you can expect at different kinds of meteorology internships. The club posed many interesting questions about the different internships and became very interested in what could be in store for them.

Also, the club obtained a list of members that wanted to get certified by Skywarn. The trip to get certified was the next Monday, the 22 October 2001. The training session was held at the Ocean County Emergency Operation Center in New Jersey. Almost the entire club that was not already certified wanted to go and was very enthusiastic about it.

Discussions about a club trip to Florida for the 82nd American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting were underway. The officers took a list of members that definitely wanted to go and a list of possible members that wanted to go. Plans to go down are going to be finalized soon, and the club hopes to have as many members attend the annual meeting as possible.

Some members of the club will keep in contact with other meteorology majors from different colleges to see what they are doing. By doing this, we can exchange different ideas and see what each school is up to. Towards the end of the meeting, a lady from the Co-op center (cooperative education, a place at our college where they help students get internships) talked to the club about what is involved in getting an internship and how the center helps students. She talked about her role in helping students and told us the different opportunities that are available to us as far as jobs are concerned. She handed out information packets to those who were interested and answered any questions that the members of the club had.---Lisa M. Robak.


The 23 October 2001 meeting of the Washington DC Chapter of the AMS was held at the Holiday Inn Capitol in Washington DC. The guest speaker for the evening was the Honorable William H. Rehnquist, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

After Chapter Chair Chris Moren welcomed 130 members, guests, and friends of the DC AMS chapter in attendance, chapter vice chair Ken Carey detailed plans for future meetings. Future meeting topics will include atmospheric science education, weather impacts on the transportation and power industries, national atmospheric and oceanic science policy implementation, weather derivatives, career opportunities in the atmospheric sciences, severe weather and storm chasing, history of Washington television broadcasting, and a science, technological, and engineering fair banquet.

The DC Chapter of the AMS is aggressively pursuing ways it can become more involved in the local communities. Some of the possibilities include mentoring those local high school or middle students interested in the atmospheric or oceanic sciences; organizing and running a Weather Explorer Post; setting a robust community speakers program; or partnering with the Washington Academy of Sciences to support a youth-focused organization called Americas Promise. To help chapter members make an informed choice, chapter vice chair Ken Carey invited Sean Gordy, Director of Communities and States, to speak. Sean provided a brief overview of the America's Promise organization, and left informational materials with the chapter. He stated that the mission of this National Non-profit organization is to build the character of young people through five promises by caring adults. The key to fulfilling this mission includes: (1) framing communities of promise; (2) asking the community to donate time, talent and treasure; and, most importantly, (3) obtaining the commitment of caring adults.

Another way in which the chapter is reaching out to the local community is through the establishment of a college scholarship program for high school seniors who are interested in pursuing careers in the meteorology or a related field. SAIC is partnering with the DC AMS to make this happen by donating a $1,000 to jumpstart this very worthwhile and unique opportunity.

The guest speaker for the evening was the Chief Justice of the United States, William H. Rehnquist. Before going into law, Chief Justice Rehnquist was a weather observer in the Army Air Corps. His introduction to meteorology came when he enlisted in the United States Army Air Force in 1942. He enrolled as a freshman at Kenyon College in the fall of 1942, signing up for a pre-meteorology program.

Chris Moren and Chief Justice Rehnquist

The Chief Justice was called up in March 1943, at a time when U. S. troops, which had landed in North Africa in November 1942, were about to drive the German troops out of North Africa. He was assigned to Denison University, another Ohio college. After about a year, the Air Force realized that the people setting up the Pre-Meteorology programs had mistakenly added a zero to the number of weather forecasters that would be needed. The programs closed down in February, 1944, and those in them were given the option of going to Communications Officer Candidate School or remaining enlisted men and going to air bases. Chief Justice Rehnquist decided to go into the enlisted ranks.

The Chief Justice was sent to Will Rogers Field in Oklahoma City, where he received on-the-job training as a weather observer. After three months at Will Rogers Field, he was shipped to Carlsbad, New Mexico. After about three months at Carlsbad, he was shipped to Hondo, Texas. He did pretty much the same kind of work at all three bases, but then after a few months at Hondo he was chosen for another training program which began at Chanute Field, Illinois, and ended at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey. The program was designed to teach the maintenance and repair of weather instruments. In the summer of 1945 he went overseas and served as a weather observer.

After a couple of weeks waiting for his orders, Chief Justice Rehnquist was shipped to Tripoli as the first step in an westward odyssey via a series of air bases that were being decommissioned, ending up in Casablanca. He remained in Casablanca for 4 months. According to the Chief Justice, the situation was too good to be true. Most of the weather facility had been turned over to French civilians to operate, since Morocco was French territory and they would have to take over when the last American troops left Cazes. So the responsibilities of the Weather Squadron were minimal.

Finally, in late March 1946, along with many of those of the people stationed at Cazes Air Base at Casablanca, Chief Justice Rehnquist boarded the S. S. Adabelle Lykes, to travel back to the United States.

Chief Justice Rehnquist finished his talk with an account of the role of weather forecasts in D-Day - June 6, 1944, the most important day of World War II in the European Theater. Essential to the success of the attack were favorable tides and favorable weather. The invasion force assembled in England in late May consisted of 4,000 ships, 11,000 planes, and nearly 3 million soldiers, airmen and sailors. D-Day was successful, and in that single day more than 175,000 allied troops were landed in Normandy -- and the key to that success was great weather forecasting, as acknowledge by General Dwight D. Eisenhower in his personal diary.

Chief Justice Rehnquist receiving "Weather Weenie" plaque from Chris Moren

Responding to a question on his decision after the war to leave meteorology and become a lawyer, Chief Justice Rehnquist said he likes to think the switch improved both professions. The Chapter presented Rehnquist a handsome plaque, the centerpiece being a weather satellite picture donated by the Air Force Director of Weather. On the plaque, the chapter honored Rehnquist's interest in weather and climate by proclaiming him a legal "weather weenie."---Lauraileen O'Connor.


On August 27th, 2001 the chapter held a meeting at the Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center in Miami. The following agenda items were discussed by the 31 members present:

The invited speaker for the meeting was Brian Owens from the University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. His talk was titled "Atlantic Hurricanes: Recurvature, Landfall and the North Atlantic Oscillation. The seminar examined the relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and North Atlantic hurricane activity. Owens noted that considerable research has been undertaken to establish physical mechanisms to explain the statistical relationships between tropical cyclone activity in the North Atlantic Ocean and various large-scale atmospheric and oceanic factors, e.g., West African rainfall, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), and ENSO. Possible suggested physical mechanisms include the vertical wind shear field and sea-surface temperature anomalies.

According to Owens, the NAO is one of the dominant modes affecting circulation of the atmosphere and ocean in the North Atlantic Ocean, not just during the winter months, but throughout the year. He discussed possible relationship between the NAO and tropical cyclone activity by means of a physical mechanism, i.e., the position of the sub-tropical ridge and its relationship to both the NAO in July and the tracks of hurricanes in the North Atlantic Ocean. Owens proposed that this relationship should also be present during the peak months of August, September, and October (ASO) and examined the possibility of using the July (and other) values of the NAO index to predict the ASO value of the index.

Owens also noted that steering flow in the tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic is a principal determinant of hurricane tracks and its relationship to recurvature and landfall was presented. The analyses indicate that steering flow has a significant impact on the recurvature (and hence, landfall) of Atlantic hurricanes along the U.S. East Coast but not in the Gulf of Mexico. Mr. Owens' main conclusions included:


The first meeting of the chapter year on 28 August kicked off with general business. Chapter President Jeremy Grams welcomed the new freshman and all members introduced themselves to everyone else.

Grams urged everyone to go to the annual department picnic at Inez Grove Park in Ames on 5 September. A meeting for "Cy's Eyes on the Skies" the chapter's weather television show was announced for 30 August. A meeting for students interested in the National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest (NCWFC) and a forecasting clinic for freshman was announced for 6 September.

Chapter Social Chair Kevin Sullivan announced the chapter would field a flag football team. Chapter Treasurer Penny Zabel announced dues of $5 were to be made by 13 September. Chapter Web master Ryan Westendorf created a web site for the chapter. It features a calender of events, meeting minutes, member names, and pictures of chapter events.

Grams announced that the chapter's Executive Committee decided to abolish the Storm Chase Club this year due to university rules, lack of organization, and funds. Instead, an email list of students interested in storm chasing would be compiled allowing those interested in chasing to meet. However, storm chasing would not be an official or funded activity of the chapter.

The 13 September meeting was the chapter's annual pizza party. All 39 members showed up to pay the annual dues and have some great food.

Chapter member Mike Falk will set up an online discussion and message board for the chapter and members in the NCWFC. Grams will post a daily forecast discussion on the web site in hopes of improving team scores in the NCWFC.

Grams announced a first 1" snow contest will occur this year for the first time. Chapter members can choose up to three days to forecast when the first inch of snow will fall at the National Weather Service in Johnston. Entries are $1.00 a piece with 35% of the winnings going to the winner, 15% going to the runner-up, and the other 50% going back into the chapter treasury.

A bowling night was announced for 30 September as a fun activity for members. Zabel announced that the pop fund is back up and running. Money earned will go back into the treasury.

Amendments to the chapter's constitution were approved. The newly amended constitution will be posted on the chapter's web site.

The 18 October meeting featured Faculty Advisor Dr. Bill Gallus giving a presentation titled "Killer Weather Extremes." Gallus presented video on the 1889 Johnstown Flood that killed over 2000 people, the 11 May 2000 Waterloo tornado, and the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado. Gallus discussed the meteorology behind each event.

Before the presentation, Grams announced that the tailgate will be on 20 October before the Iowa State/Oklahoma State football game. Chapter Past President Jenny Riese gained approval to buy items to improve the chapter's bulletin board. Gallus was looking for juniors/seniors/grad students in the chapter to help give tours to prospective students looking at the program. The Halloween Party was announced for 31 October. Videos, candy, games, and a costume contest will take place. Chapter member Brian Viner won the bowling competition that occurred on 30 September.

The Executive Committee proposed the spring break trip to be in Boulder/Denver, Colorado. The centerpiece of the trip would be a visit to NCAR. An informational meeting about the trip was announced for 15 November.

Zabel announced that chapter fundraising at Jolesch Photography in Des Moines would be held 1 November and 8 November. 10 to 12 people were needed for each night. Sullivan announced that the next broomball game for the chapter would be held 25 October.---Jeremy S Grams.


The first meeting of the 2001-02 chapter year was held Thursday, October 4th, at the National Weather Service in Jackson, MS. The meeting was opened by chapter President Alan Gerard with 11 people in attendance.

Discussion was initiated by Dr. Paul Croft in the opening session, concerning AMS minority scholarship applications sent to Jackson State University. It was agreed that Jackson AMS Chapter members could participate in review and ranking of the scholarship applications, as in years past.

Possibilities for the next meeting were also discussed. Alan Gerard proposed that we have the next meeting at French Camp astronomical observatory, for observing with its many telescopes. The observatory director, Jim Hill, is willing to do a planetarium show, and a talk regarding weather on other planets.

Following the opening session, Alan Gerard presented his talk on the National Weather Service's Interactive Forecast Preparation System (IFPS). Mr. Gerard discussed the capabilities of this ground-breaking forecast information and display tool being implemented at Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) around the nation. He gave an overview of the suite of graphical and numerical forecast products generated by the system, and the steps taken in preparing the products. Mr. Gerard discussed implications of the graphical forecasts in conveying particular weather threats, and discussed the advantage of graphical products over traditional text products. Discussion took place concerning how IFPS will change the NWS relationship with local media. The presentation was concluded with a demonstration of IFPS product creation, and a look at IFPS products on the world wide web.

The meeting was adjourned by Alan Gerard.---Eric Carpenter.


The first meeting of the 2001-2002 Kansas City American Meteorological Society Chapter came to order on 19 September 2001 at Stephenson's Restaurant in Lees Summit Missouri. President Joe Lauria (Meteorologist for KCTV-5) introduced himself and the other officers; Secretary Peter Browning (Science and Operations Officer, NWS Pleasant Hill MO), and Treasurer Heide Petermann. President Lauria noted that the vice-president position was vacant and asked the membership for interested candidates. He mentioned that a motion to raise the membership dues will be brought to the floor at the October meeting.

The president introduced Dr. Wayne Decker, Professor Emeritus at the University of Missouri. Dr. Decker is on the planning committee for the International Society of Biometeorology Conference to be held in Kansas City in October 2002. Dr. Decker was seeking the chapter's help in planning area activities during the conference.

Dr. Wayne Decker, professor emeritus at the University of Missouri addressing the membership.

The president then introduced our speakers, Dr. Patrick Market and Dr. Anthony Lupo, both professors at the University of Missouri at Columbia MO. They spoke about the state of meteorology training at the University. The meteorology department employs two full time professors and will be hiring another professor this fall. They described what has become to be known as the "Twister" effect with a rise in interest in meteorology after the movie was released. Then, many students change majors or leave after seeing the math and science requirements first hand. This year the department had 83 undergraduates but usually only 5-10 graduate. A description of the campus and facilities was then presented. The department uses computers to retrieve weather information and output from the MASS hydrostatic model and displays this data using gempak software for use in classes and labs.

Dr. Anthony Lupo (left) and Dr. Patrick Market holding complimentary NOAA weather radios after addressing the membership.

Dr. Market noted recent pressure to change the curriculum from the NWS 1340 requirements to a focus on career training. It was suggested that the school pare back some of the things in the program using the reasoning that since the NWS is not hiring, why make the program GS-1340 compatible? It was suggested that students should be graduating from school trained for employment. Dr. Market vigorously defended keeping the meteorology program pure and letting the students choose appropriate minors that may make them marketable. He recommended that the University should not alter the program. He used an analogy with medicine - medicine is a business more than ever these days, but you still need the doctor to be a doctor. If the doctor wants to run it like a business, that's extra - he or she will still need the basic skills.

President Joe Lauria addressing the membership.

Dr. Lupo explained some of the topics that are in the department's program, which included teaching computer languages from fortran to C. They also provide work and research experience opportunities through COMET projects with the Springfield and Pleasant Hill MO offices, working with broadcast meteorologists and working with storm chasing companies. To compete in the workplace or attend graduate school, students need to have research experience. They teach the scientific method and expose them to new tools (computers and instrumentation). Students publish undergraduate research and present findings at conferences. They tracked the progress of recent graduates (37) and found that of those that did not go to graduate school, 81 percent were employed in the meteorology field within the first year of graduation. Thirty percent of all graduates went to graduate school. Dr. Lupo noted that jobs in the private sector were increasing while National Weather Service job opportunities had decreased. Dr. Lupo ended up on a positive note. He mentioned that there are some who talk about the weather forecaster becoming obsolete. However, he noted that there are still many things that are not understood in models, a situation which he predicted will continue for at least the next 30 to 50 years. Meteorologists will be needed in the weather derivatives market, climate, air pollution, aviation interests, urban planning and broadcasting. He noted that as long as there is news, we'll need the weather.

Our speakers were presented with NOAA Weather Radios, donated by Weather or Not and Midland Radio as a token of our appreciation for speaking to the membership. The meeting was then adjourned.

President Joe Lauria brought the Kansas City American Meteorological Society Chapter meeting to order on 17 October 2001 at the Country Club Plaza branch of the Kansas City Public Library. A short business meeting was held. Main issues of discussion centered on the archiving of club records and raising the chapter dues from 10 to 20 dollars next year. Both motions passed.

President Lauria then introduced the speaker for the evening, Gary Lezak. Gary is the chief meteorologist at KSHB-TV in Kansas City. Gary spoke to the membership about his life-long interest in the weather and how he got into the weather broadcasting business, his bout with cancer and showed video taken during a couple of storm chases. Gary was raised in southern California where he described the weather as boring. Yet since he was 5 years old, he always wanted to tell people about the weather. Gary went to the University of Oklahoma and received his degree in meteorology. While he was a senior, he got his first break doing the weather broadcasts one day a week for a journalism class. Although Gary was scared to speak in front of people, he found that once he started doing it, he really loved it. Gary then interned at Channel 9 in Oklahoma City, and eventually became the morning on-air meteorologist. In 1992, Gary moved to Kansas City to do the morning show on WDAF-TV. Gary became quite popular and would share the spotlight with his dog Windy. Windy always went with Gary when he visited schools to talk to the children about the weather.

In 1999, Gary became the chief meteorologist at KSHB-TV in Kansas City. About the same time, Gary broke his right arm in a rollerblading accident. During a visit to the doctor, he asked the doctor to look at a growth on his left arm. After removing the growth, it was determined that Gary had a very aggressive form of bone cancer. He began extensive chemotherapy to eradicate the cancer and was happy to report that he has now been cancer free for over 2 years. Gary then showed video from a storm chase when he saw his first tornado. Windy was also at the meeting with his new dog Stormy (Windy is 12 years old now). Both dogs performed their tricks which included sitting, playing dead and acting like a tornado!

Gary was then presented with a NOAA Weather Radio, donated by Weather or Not and Midland Radio as a token of our appreciation for speaking to the membership. The meeting was then adjourned.

President Joe Lauria brought the Kansas City American Meteorological Society Chapter ( meeting to order on 15 November 2001 at the Hardware Café in Liberty MO. A short business meeting was held. The main issue of discussion was on improving the way meeting announcements are sent to the members and receiving meeting reservations.

President Lauria then introduced the speaker for the evening, Pete Chaston. Pete is retired from the National Weather Service where he had been the Meteorologist in Charge at Rochester NY before transferring to the National Weather Service Training Center in Kansas City MO. After retirement, Pete has authored six books (five of which are about the weather) and teaches on a fill-in basis at the University of Kansas.

The topic of his talk was to share with the membership his collection of National Weather Service and television meteorologist bloopers. But before he jumped in with the humor, Pete spoke about an observation that he has made concerning young meteorologists. Pete observed a great dependancy on the use of numerical model guidance by students. He called it AIDS - Artificial Intelligence Dependancy Syndrome (similar to the meteorological cancer that was coined by Len Snellman in the 1980s). Pete sited an example of when one bad balloon launch affected all of the numerical models, all of which produced a major winter storm for the eastern U.S. Since forecasters with AIDS look for model agreement for confidence in the forecast, many offices issued winter storm watches for a storm that never materialized. Pete urged the membership to emphasize meteorological analysis when teaching new forecasters so that they can use the numerical models to their benefit.

President Joe Lauria (left) presents Pete Chaston a chapter hat as a token of the club's appreciation.

Pete then showed many hilarious examples of statements and forecast discussions that had been issued over the years by National Weather Service forecasters. Pete pointed out that many of them seemed to originate on the night shift. Pete then showed video clips of bloopers from television meteorologists that he had acquired through the years, including rare footage of a young Don Knots doing the weather on the Steve Allen show. After the entertaining presentation, President Lauria presented Pete with a Chapter Hat (figure 1) as a token of our appreciation for speaking to the membership. The meeting was then adjourned.--Peter Browning.


The Los Angeles Chapter opened their 2001-2002 season on the evening of October 24th at the UCLA Atmospheric Sciences Department. Our guest speaker was Dr. Bjorn Stevens of UCLA who gave a lively discussion on how boundary layer clouds (status and stratocumulus) influence global climate models. Dr. Stevens explained the unique dynamics of the marine layer along the Southern California coast and the exchanges that occur between the cloud layer and dry, warm air above it. Particularly interesting was the data acquisition process which included a C-130 equipped with an array of sensors and radar. Moreover, slides taken during the data flights were presented during Dr. Steven's lecture which showed the unique textures and daily pattern variation of the boundary layer stratocumulus. The marine layer is the main weather feature for Southern California for several months of the year which made the lecture highly topical for the members. We all look forward to an even more comprehensive summary of Dr. Steven's research in an upcoming BAMS.

Over the last few months, the chapter has been discussing an agenda and goals for the season. We are hoping to get more involved with community and educational outreach. At the October meeting, chapter president, Phil Barone, detailed a fund raising project which would benefit a local scholarship, science fair awards and/or education outreach. Phil displayed a Davis Weather Station that he had just purchased for installation at a local private school. This was just one of the examples of how members or philanthropists could participate in the fund raising efforts. We'll keep you posted on this project over the coming months.

The board members are also hopeful at expanding membership in the chapter. We will be visiting local universities and colleges soliciting both students and instructors to join or become more involved. It is also our hope that we can get more participation from our local NWS office (OXR). One of the fundamental goals of the AMS is to foster the exchange of new information in the meteorological community and the best way to achieve this is by having participation from various sectors of our field.

Finally, the chapter is planning how we will be represented at the national meeting in January. Treasurer Steve LaDochy and member Jeff Brown plan on attending the meeting for a presentation and to display our poster. They both look forward to visiting Orlando and participating in the local chapter events.---Richard Dickert.


The first meeting of the 2001-2002 academic year for the Memphis, TN chapter of the American Meteorological Society took place at 7:00PM on Thursday, September 27, 2001 at the National Weather Service Forecast Office at Agricenter International. There were approximately 25 people in attendance.

Chairperson Erik Proseus opened the meeting with the introduction of the officers for this year. They are: Erik Proseus - President, Jon Howell - Vice President and Michael Wroten - Secretary/Treasurer.

Dues were the first topic of discussion as we have raised the yearly fee from $5 to $10. There was no objection to the increase which was implemented to better support the chapter with an increase of options for our semi-monthly meetings.

We then talked about future meetings and the introduction of a semi-monthly Dutch Treat lunch that would take place on the off months from the formal meeting. We also talked about the Southeast Severe Storms Symposium that Mississippi State University is hosting. The date was in question but it has been confirmed that it will be held on February 15-17, 2002 at MSU. If you are interested in attending, please let one of the officers know.

The last topic of discussion was the survey that was e-mailed out to the membership in late August. There was a great response to the survey and it will help the officers immensely in planning for the future. If you have yet to fill out the survey, you may still do so at our website:

The featured speaker for the evening was Mr. Bill Bullock, Assistant Manager of Energy Resources at Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLG&W). Mr. Bullock's topic was on how MLG&W uses weather forecasts to predict energy loads, planning gas purchases, and how their crews handle inclement weather. He began with an overview of MLG&W and how they are supplied by the Tennessee Valley Authority exclusively. MLG&W is the largest TVA user taking up to 11% of the TVA load. He then showed diagrams and maps of the Natural Gas pipeline network, the Liquified Natural Gas stations around the city, as well as the water systems.

MLG&W uses various sources for weather data but the main vendor is WeatherBank, which supplies them with RADAR and lightning data, as well as forecasts. They also get data from the NWS, DTN, and the Internet. When scheduling restoration crews, due to thunderstorms, high winds or winter weather (the dreaded ice storm), they look 6 hours out to determine how many dispatchers and technical support people to bring in.

Scheduling energy purchases is a much more involved process. Power is bought hourly and they are not allowed to purchase energy outside of the TVA. With average temperature the most important parameter in their forecasts, they use the acquired weather data to run a model to better estimate what and how much to purchase. Along with current data, they also look at historical and climatological data to better help them make their decisions. With the skyrocketing prices of natural gas last winter MLG&W has implemented a "hedging" policy that allows them to have extended contracts with the price of natural gas locked in. It was explained that while this is good for winters, such as the near record usage winter of last year, it increases the overall costs to the utility for winters that are milder due to the higher overall costs.

Mr. Bullock then discussed the cost of a missed forecast, which is generally described as actual temperatures more than +/- 5F from what was forecasted. With depletion of reserves to the cost of natural gas on the spot market to pipeline penalties to the last resort of cutting utilities to industrial users, it could be quite an impact to the Memphis and Mid-South economy. The night was closed out with a short question and answer period with Mr. Bullock.

We want to thank Mr. Bullock for coming and giving the presentation and hope to see everyone at the next meeting on November 14th, 2001.---Michael Wroten.


The Omaha-Offutt chapter of the AMS held a meeting on the 18th day of October at Valentino's located on 108th and "O"st., Omaha, Nebraska. Twenty-three members and guests were present. The luncheon began with an all you can buffet at 11:30a.m. Our President, Gene Wall, called the business meeting to order at shortly after 12:15p.m. and welcomed all members and guests. In addition, Gene had several new members introduce themselves. Gene happily introduced the officers to our new members and then proceeded with old business.

Old Business:
Jeremy Wesely read the minutes from the September meeting. Joe Hanser approved the minutes and Sue Robbins seconded. Mr. Wesely congratulated John Schmit on winning September's forecast contest. Carolyn Petri and Coleen Decker tied for second place. Gene encouraged all non-members to join the chapter while reminding old members to renew their memberships. Gene also informed the members that we were in need of one more volunteer for our auditing committee. Bruce Telfeyan quickly volunteered and joined previous volunteers, Kirth Pederson, and Jason Blackerby. Gene reminded the members that the 82nd AMS Annual Meeting will be held in Orlando Florida from Jan 13th -17th. He also took a few seconds to encourage members to fill out suggestion sheets to aid the officers in the conducting of meetings. The Chapter Bi-Laws have been altered and Gene informed members that they have the ability to view the changes on our chapter web site. Members will be able to vote for acceptance or rejection of the new bi-laws.

New Business:
Gene announced that he had received an inquiry from a high school senior with regards to our chapter scholarship. He handed this over to our education committee and made a request for additional volunteers to join the chapter's committee. Gene reminded all weather enthusiasts that the new wind chill index will go into effect on the 1st of November. All members were then free to share any other weather related stories or experiences. Joe Hanser related a story as to how he had used an approaching cold front to gain lift and speed in a recent aircraft race. Dave Theophilis announced that there will be a special program dealing with winter weather that will be broadcast at 6:30p.m November 1st on local weather radios.

Guest Speaker:
Our featured speaker was Bryce Anderson from DTN Kavouras Weather Services. Mr. Anderson is based out of the embassy plaza building in Omaha, NE. He demonstrated many of the products made available through the DTN box. These products are sent via satellite signals to users across the country. DTN focuses heavily on the interactions between agriculture, weather, and the markets. Mr. Anderson highlighted the importance of providing products that include both meteorological and agricultural aspects. For instance, DTN has a product that overlays a radar image on top of a soil moisture chart. This helps to give DTN users a heads up with regards to future market trends. DTN aims at being a one-stop shop for its customers and has had great success in this endeavor.---Jeremy Wesely.


Current members and students were in attendence for our most recent meeting on November 13th. National Weather Service Sullivan Office Hydrologist Brian Hahn gave a presentation on flood forecasting and hydrology. We learned about what goes into making a flood forecast and what criteria is used for issuing a flood warning. Brian talked about the technology used in the automated river gauges. The oldest method involves a "culvert" buried vertically next to a river. Intake tubes allow water from the river to flow into the culvert. Since the water will naturally seek out an equal level, a float is then used inside the tube to measure the water level. The newer way to measure water levels is to use nitrogen gas, which is pumped into the river. Different water levels will exert a different amount of pressure against the nitrogen gas, which is then measured to give a water level reading. The future could involve the use of doppler radar for measuring water levels in a river.

Hahn also talked about QPFs, or Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts, which are issued two times a day, every day of the year. The QPF is the predicted amount of water over time. Timing and magnitude is very important with these short range forecasts. If a predicted flood arrives earlier than expected or brings higher levels of water than predicted, it can lead to catastrophic consequences. The future of flood forecasting can be summed up with a simple acronym, AHPS. The Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service is an internet-related service which provides users with a 90-day prediction on what rivers will do. This will be especially helpful for Emergency Government officials, utilities and a number of other people for determining how bad a predicted flood would be and what steps to take. In Green Bay, the AHPS can be accessed by logging onto Our next meeting is actually our Christmas Party, which will be held on December 6th at the Holiday Inn City Centre. Cocktails are at six with the dinner at seven pm.

In January, we'll learn about snow making at Rib Mountain in Wausau on the 23rd.---Scott Patrick.


It has been a terrific start to a new year for PUMA. Our annual membership call-out held 9/12 had record attendance. Over 40 students signed up this year, half of which are returning members. Topics of the evening were cut short so members could attend the candle lighting ceremony held on the Purdue campus for the events of September 11th.

The first Chapter function was a trip to the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, Illinois. Members spent the day at their leisure exploring the numerous offerings of the museum. At the end of the day, we attended an OmniMax film presentation 'Stormchasers'. There is nothing like chasing after a tornado with Dr. Howard Bluestine or flying through hurricanes on the wings of NOAA aircraft in a 70º-dome theater.

The following meeting was a presentation by returning guest speaker, Daniel Kottlowski, of AccuWeather who talked to PUMA about career opportunities with the Pennsylvania based corporation. The United States Air Force recruiter, Tech. Sgt. Brian Kelly, also came to visit with PUMA to discuss the need for forecasters in the Air Force.

Peter Hall, the PUMA Vice President, has been in contact with Purdue University's cable television station to put together a student run weather production. This is a unique program that is gaining quite a bit of momentum. The present idea is to have students from the Atmospheric Science Department and members of PUMA produce and broadcast a weather segment for the surrounding campus community.

Wrapping up the end of October was the 3rd Annual SKYWARN training seminar given by David Tucek of the NWS-KIND. Severe weather spotting is a common activity for several members of PUMA. Being recognized by the NWS as spotters allows us to be taken more seriously when reporting severe weather events to local authorities and the NWS.

Coming up for PUMA… Selected leaders will be representing the chapter at the upcoming AMS Annual Meeting in Orlando, a field trip to the NWS office in North Webster, IN (KIWX), another field trip to the Severe Weather Expo at Fermi Lab hosted by WGN-TV in northern Illinois, and the Third Annual Severe Weather Awareness event at Purdue University.

Visit PUMA at M. Sardeson.


The chapter meeting took place on November 13. The minutes and treasurer's report were read from the previous meeting. Nominations were taken for the Association of Former Students Distinguished Achievement Award in Teaching. Volunteers for Habitat for Humanity were reminded that the project was on November 17. The Adopt-A-Highway cleanup was set for December 1. Dave Gold gave a presentation on storm chasing and showed chasing videos. The meeting was adjourned to pizza.---Mandy Kellner.


The 2000-2001 year for the West Central Florida Chapter concluded with the 40th annual End-of-the-Year Banquet, which took place at the elegant University Club on the 38th floor of the Verizon skyscraper in downtown Tampa. Forty members and guests participated in a memorable evening of dining, music, conversation, and a considerable bit of reminiscing, thanks to the evening's keynote speaker, broadcast meteorology pioneer Roy Leep.

Prior to Leep's address, Professor Jim Wysong announced the results of the 2001-2002 election. With unanimous decisions in most cases, President Andy Johnson, Vice-President Charlie Paxton, Secretary Amanda Ramella, and Treasurer Nancy Knight were each re-elected to their respective posts, while Mark Mantz was elected to the new Board position of Webmaster.

Chapter member Bruce Campbell spoke to the group about the Chapter's participation in the annual Sun n' Fun Fly-In festival in Lakeland, Florida. The event occurred from April 8 - 14. Three Chapter members volunteered during the event by monitoring an exhibition booth providing educational information about meteorology and instructing young visitors in simple but interesting meteorological projects and experiments.

Roy Leep is virtually synonymous with excellence in the meteorology industry. His illustrious career began in 1946 as an intern with the Weather Bureau in Louisville, Kentucky. He then went on to Murray State College and established a campus co-op weather station. Mr. Leep served in the U.S. Air Force, graduating with honors from the weather schools and remained an instructor/supervisor from 1952 to 1956. He attended Florida State University 1956-57 and did daily weather reports on campus radio station WMEN. After joining WTVT in Tampa, Florida, in 1957, he became the station's Executive Director of Weather Services in 1988, and retired after 40 years of service in 1997. Leep, a charter member and former President of the West Central Florida Chapter, has been a member of the AMS since 1951, holds the broadcasting Seal of Approval #10 (1960), and is the first television meteorologist to be elected an AMS Fellow, in 1975. His many awards and honors include Outstanding Service by a Broadcast Meteorologist (1977), Outstanding Services to Meteorology by a Corporation (on behalf of WTVT), and a NOAA Silver Medal for pioneering the use of weather satellites in the TV industry.

Leep's speech focused on the evolution of television weathercasting and how the use of radar and satellite technology greatly changed the way TV weather broadcasts are presented, covering about five decades of weathercasting. Though many examples of development focused on events in the Tampa Bay region, Leep pointed out that these events paralleled events that occurred across the nation.

Broadcast meteorology pionoeer Roy Leep.

The use of radar in TV weather presentations was rare during the 1950s and early 1960s. A few stations began using radar images in the mid-'50s using low-powered, X-band, 3-cm marine navigation radars with a range of up to 25 mi. Nash Roberts of WWL in New Orleans was one of the first to use radar regularly on weather broadcasts. Ground clutter was a common sight on the earliest radar images, but at least the trend was started.

By the late '50s, Bendix and Collins produced a C-band 5-cm "101" radar used primarily in aircraft, but modified for ground use. WTVT introduced such a radar in May 1959 -- the first of its kind in Florida -- which was sheltered under a Plexiglas dome and mounted on top of the station's roof. It was one of a very few with a monitoring range of 175 mi. This "radar weather eye" opened a "new forecasting era," being one of the first weather radars situated on the Gulf coast. Originally, it was difficult to see radar echoes for any length of time since the echoes would fade soon after the sweep passed by, so the sweep speed was increased to refresh the images quickly. A map overlay was provided to give the viewer a geographic reference. The public began to rely heavily on these radar-assisted forecasts. Residents could begin to track rain events and plan their activities accordingly.

Leep described how the radar was used inside the studio as well. In the beginning, all lights had to be turned off so the radar image could be easily seen. Eventually, local modifications were made to make the images more easily seen and understood.

Weather events in the 1960s provided the necessary evidence for the use of radar in television weathercasting. The progress of Hurricane Donna in 1960 was continuously tracked with WTVT's radar, providing real time information that surpassed the National Hurricane Center's capabilities at that time. After hearing about the radar advantage and the live broadcasts, NHC officials visited the station to view its operations, which led to the implication of its own radar tracking systems.

Additional features were included to make radar meteorology more informative and useful; the radar was elevated onto a 100-ft. tower, and its range increased to 215 mi. A 16-mm automated camera was set up on the radarscope to record radar echoes over a period of time. In 1965, WTVT's weather operations moved into its new Color Communication Center, a state-of-the-art facility in which color was added to the weather broadcasts, and the radar control panel placed in its own console.

In 1970, WTVT installed a brand new Vitro radar system, consisting of a dome-less six-foot dish mounted on a new 100-ft. tower with a range of 315 mi. A premiere feature of this radar was the video integrator processor. The VIP was capable of showing six different gray levels for differing rainfall rates. It also contained built-in circuitry to reduce ground clutter by differentiating between moving and non-moving objects. In a matter of only a few years, WTVT was the first to colorize and freeze radar images on the screen, eliminating the fade.

The radar came in quite useful in 1985, when Hurricane Elena approached the Florida west coast. WTVT's radar was the only broadcast radar that could detect the hurricane's eye offshore. Viewers overwhelmingly tuned in to WTVT for the latest information on the storm's development and movement. The meteorologists were able to use the radar's pseudo-Doppler mode to detect areas of greatest wind speeds and their proximity to land. Leep noted that the Doppler mode is most useful to the forecasters, while the reflectivity mode was best understood by the general public.

In 1986, an Enterprise radar was designed and customized. Dubbed "SkyTower," the radar system became a remarkable instrument in Bay area weather reporting and forecasting. SkyTower's 20-ft. dish was installed atop a 200-ft. cement tower in 1988 with a range of 430 mi. and a 75-mi. Doppler range. Before the Vitro radar was deactivated, a comparison was made between the radar images from SkyTower, the NWS's WSR-57, and the Vitro; SkyTower showed a significant increase in reflectivity readings, which assured of a wider view of any approaching activity.

The concern of ground clutter readings were decreased when Tampa's City Council ensured WTVT that the tower would be the highest structure in the area. The prohibition of the construction of high-rise buildings thanks to the location to Tampa International Airport would prevent any obstruction of SkyTower's view.

The advantage of the wide range proved valuable during the height of tropical activity. Tropical Storm Marco (1990) provided SkyTower's first decent Doppler mode readings. In 1992's historic Hurricane Andrew, SkyTower did what no other radar system was capable of doing; it detected Andrew's eye more than 300 mi. away in the Bahamas and tracked it continuously for more than 30 hours as it swept through south Florida and into the Gulf of Mexico. SkyTower's detailed tracking capabilities were demonstrated during Hurricane Erin (1995), as the eye passed through central Florida and its projected path and the time certain areas would be affected were displayed on its SkyTrack system.

Currently, numerous television stations in the country, including three in the Tampa Bay area, operate their own radar systems, a testimony to radar's high importance in weather forecasting and broadcasting.

In his continuing efforts for cutting-edge technology for his forecasters, clients, and the public, Leep addressed the need for satellite instruments, specifically a ground acquisition station known as an APT, to gather images from outer space. The managers at WTVT eventually agreed, and in February 1966, Leep witnessed the launch of the first APT satellite from Cape Canaveral. One month later, WTVT began receiving satellite data directly from the source, the only TV weather facility with that capability at the time.

The APT ground station system enabled the meteorologists to print satellite pictures in facsimile fashion and provided the first broad perspective of weather activity. Each image was then posted as a mosaic on an overlay map. Images were made available in segments - the eastern U.S. pictures were available for the morning broadcasts, perhaps half of the country could be mapped by noon, and the entire satellite picture of the lower 48 states was seen by the evening report. It was the first example of satellite imagery used on a TV broadcast, and the public accepted its use quite nicely. Present- and previous-day mosaics were posted, giving the meteorologists a good comparison and forecasting tool.

The first geostationary satellites, starting with the ATS, came online in 1975, which ended the use of the APT equipment and gave a larger view of the entire globe. WTVT began the transition to McIDAS; by 1979, GOES satellite readings were processed in the weather center and enhanced and displayed through McIDAS. WTVT was the first to receive GOES data and colorize, navigate, and animate real-time data onto satellite pictures. WTVT was the only TV station working with the University of Wisconsin and McIDAS between 1978 and 1997 to develop many of the items that are now commonly used on today's weather reports.

In addition, Mr. Leep gave a brief insight to the overall everyday operations of the WTVT weather center, describing methods of displaying weather information and maps that could be considered primitive by today's standards. Leep also provided the actual control panel for the original "101" radar and distributed it around the room for the audience's closer inspection. Oh behalf of the West Central Florida Chapter, President Johnson presented Leep a token of appreciation for his lecture at the annual banquet and his overall outstanding service to the community.

Regular Chapter meetings will resume in September. The studio of WFTS Channel 28 in Tampa was announced as the site of the first Chapter meeting of the 2001-2002 year.---Andy Johnson.


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