Dataset References

(updated 7 August 2017)

Whenever possible, datasets should be referenced directly via a listing in the references in the following style. Note that references to papers that introduce or describe a dataset and/or mentions in the acknowledgments are no longer considered adequate, as these often fail to give a reader sufficient information to access the specific data used (read more about AMS Data Citation and Archiving policies):

  • Dataset authors/producers, data release year: Dataset title, version. Data archive/distributor, access date (DD Month YYYY), data locator/identifier (doi or URL).

Other citation elements should be used where applicable, such as dataset editors, subsets used, and the data archive or distributor physical location. See the below examples for illustrations:

  • Knutti, R., 2014: IPCC Working Group I AR5 snapshot: The rcp85 experiment. DKRZ World Data Center for Climate, accessed 14 October 2014, https://doi.org/10.1594/WDCC/ETHR8.

  • Lawrimore, J. H., M. J. Menne, B. E. Gleason, C. N. Williams, D. B. Wuertz, R. S. Vose, and J. Rennie, 2011: Global Historical Climatology Network–Monthly (GHCN-M), version 3. NOAA National Climatic Data Center, accessed 14 October 2014, https://doi.org/10.7289/V5X34VDR.

  • Water and Atmospheric Resources Monitoring Program, 1998: Illinois Climate Network. Prairie Research Institute Illinois State Water Survey, accessed 14 October 2014, https://doi.org/10.13012/J8MW2F2Q.

  • Eicken, H., R. Gradinger, T. Heinrichs, M. Johnson, A. Lovecraft, and M. Kaufman 2012: SMMR and SSM/I derived dates of Arctic sea ice surface melt/freeze. UCAR/NCAR–CISL–ACADIS, https://doi.org/10.5065/D6KW5CXQ.

Here are further examples of data subsets and data that are dynamically updated daily without distinct versions:

  • NOAA/NCDC, 2013: VIIRS Climate Raw Data Record (C-RDR) from Suomi NPP, version 1. NOAA/National Climatic Data Center. Subset used: October 2007–September 2008, accessed 14 October 2014, https://doi.org/10.7289/V57P8W90.

  • NOAA/NCEP, 2000: NCEP FNL Operational Model Global Tropospheric Analyses, continuing from July 1999 (updated daily). National Center for Atmospheric Research Computational and Information Systems Laboratory Research Data Archive, accessed 14 October 2014, https://doi.org/10.5065/D6M043C6.

Citing dataset references in text

The in-text citations for dataset references should be formatted the same as other publication types, using the author’s name and year of publication [e.g., “dataset produced by Knutti (2014),” or “as shown by an earlier dataset (Knutti 2014)”].

When dataset authors consist of organizations with lengthy names, abbreviate the author names appropriately [e.g., use “(NCEP 2005)” instead of “(National Centers for Environmental Prediction 2005)”]. If the citation is for a reference with two authors, use both author names [e.g., “Yeager and Large (2008)”]. References with three or more authors are always cited as the first author’s name followed by “et al.” [e.g., “Lawrimore et al. (2011)”].

Unpublished or inaccessible data

Data that are not curated or available upon request should not be included in the references and should be cited directly in the text as “unpublished data,” giving the names of the person(s) who provided the data and the year in which it was provided. If the unpublished data are the authors’ own data, the authors’ names should be listed with the year of dataset creation:

  • J. Weatherly (2017, unpublished data); (J. Weatherly 2017, unpublished data).

Citing processed/derived data

Findings presented in scientific articles are often the product of multistage workflows that involve combining, extracting, processing, and deriving datasets. Information generated by numerical simulation models should also be regarded as derived data. Data citations in these cases should be to any external datasets that were used from an external source and, if possible, to the final derived dataset(s), if they are archived in a reliable location.

Dataset reference examples

  • Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, and H. J. Zwally, 1996: Sea ice concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS passive microwave data, version 1. Subset used: Northern Hemisphere daily data (updated yearly), NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center, accessed 10 February 2016, https://doi.org/10.5067/8GQ8LZQVL0VL.

  • CERES Science Team, 2015: CERES SYN1deg, version Edition 3A. Subset: Daily, March 2000–May 2013, NASA Atmospheric Science Data Center, accessed 11 February 2016, https://doi.org/10.5067/Terra+Aqua/CERES/SYN1degDAY_L3.003A.

  • CloudSat, 2007: 2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR P_R04. Subset: 2007–2010, CloudSat Data Processing Center, accessed 19 February 2016, http://www.cloudsat.cira.colostate.edu/data-products/level-2b/2b-cldclass-lidar?term=26.

  • Comiso, J. C., 2000: Bootstrap sea ice concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS, version 2. Subset used: Northern Hemisphere daily data (updated yearly), National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center, accessed 10 February 2016, https://doi.org/10.5067/J6JQLS9EJ5HU.

  • Dutton, E. G., D. Halliwell, A. Herber, M. Maturilli, and V. Kustov, 2014: Basic measurements of radiation from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) of five stations in the years 1993 to 2013 for the December, January, and February seasons, reference list of 142 datasets. PANGEA, accessed 1 June 2015, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.150003.

    ECMWF, 2009: ERA-Interim project. National Center for Atmospheric Research Computational and Information Systems Laboratory Research Data Archive, accessed 30 March 2014, https://doi.org/10.5065/D6CR5RD9.

  • Eicken, H., R. Gradinger, T. Heinrichs, M. Johnson, A. Lovecraft, and M. Kaufman, 2012: SMMR and SSM/I derived dates of Arctic sea ice surface melt/freeze. UCAR/NCAR–CISL–ACADIS, https://doi.org/10.5065/D6KW5CXQ.

  • GPM Science Team, 2014: GPM GMI Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures Collocated, version 03. NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center, accessed 10 February 2016, http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/datacollection/GPM_1CGPMGMI_V03.html.

  • Hopkins, R., T. Addis, and the Puma Ocean Racing Team, 2015: Sea surface temperature (SST) and surface current data collected from the Mar Mostro during the around-the-world Volvo Ocean Race (VOR) from 2011-11-05 to 2012-07-12, version 1.1. NCEI Accession 0130694, NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Information, accessed 18 August 2015, http://data.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/iso?id=gov.noaa.nodc:0130694.

  • Iguchi, T., and R. Meneghini, 2014: GPM DPR Level 2A DPR Environment, V03 (GPM 2ADPR), version 03. NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center, accessed 8 April 2015, http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/datacollection/GPM_2ADPR_V03.html.

  • Knutti, R., 2014: IPCC Working Group I AR5 snapshot: The rcp85 experiment. DKRZ World Data Center for Climate, accessed 14 October 2014, https://doi.org/10.1594/WDCC/ETHR8.

  • Lawrimore, J. H., M. J. Menne, B. E. Gleason, C. N. Williams, D. B. Wuertz, R. S. Vose, and J. Rennie, 2011: Global Historical Climatology Network–Monthly (GHCN-M), version 3. NOAA National Climatic Data Center, accessed 14 October 2014, https://doi.org/10.7289/V5X34VDR.

  • Mocko, D., 2013:  NASA/GSFC/HSL, NLDAS Forcing Data L4 Monthly Climatology 0.125 x 0.125 degree, version 001. Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center, accessed 10 February 2016, https://doi.org/10.5067/AAX6TSE317FP.

  • NOAA/NCEP, 1995: NCEP/NCAR Global Reanalysis 8-day Forecast Products. NCAR Computational and Information Systems Laboratory Research Data Archive, accessed 19 February 2016, http://rda.ucar.edu/datasets/ds090.1/.

  • NOAA/NCDC, 2013: VIIRS Climate Raw Data Record (C-RDR) from Suomi NPP, version 1. Subset used: October 2007–September 2008, NOAA/National Climatic Data Center, accessed 14 October 2014, https://doi.org/10.7289/V57P8W90.

  • NOAA/NCEP, 2000: NCEP FNL Operational Model Global Tropospheric Analyses, continuing from July 1999 (updated daily). NCAR Computational and Information Systems Laboratory Research Data Archive, accessed 14 October 2014, https://doi.org/10.5065/D6M043C6.

  • NOAA/OSPO, 2014: GHRSST Level 2P Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite created by the NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Ocean (ACSPO). Version 2.3. PO.DAAC, accessed 11 February 2016, https://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/dataset/VIIRS_NPP-OSPO-L2P-v2.3.

  • OWLES, 2014: NCEP Global Forecast System Model. Subset used: 0600:00 UTC 29  January 2014, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory, accessed 10 February 2016, http://catalog.eol.ucar.edu/owles/33/date/2014/01/29.

  • Perovich, D. K., J. A. Richter-Menge, B. Elder, T. Arbetter, K. Claffey, and C. Polashenski, 2013:  Mass Balance: Buoy 2015F. Subset used: August 13, 2015–present, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, accessed 10 February 2016, http://imb.erdc.dren.mil/2015F.htm.

  • Saha, S., and Coauthors, 2010: NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) Selected Hourly Time-Series Products, January 1979 to December 2010. NCAR Computational and Information Systems Laboratory Research Data Archive, accessed 11 February 2016, https://doi.org/10.5065/D6513W89.

  • Water and Atmospheric Resources Monitoring Program, 1998: Illinois Climate Network. Prairie Research Institute Illinois State Water Survey, accessed 14 October 2014, https://doi.org/10.13012/J8MW2F2Q.