List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

(updated 21 July 2017)


AMS maintains this acronym reference list and no longer requires that authors submitting to our periodicals expand the scientific, model, institutional, and experiment/program acronyms appearing on the list. These lists are not meant to be comprehensive, but rather to cover those terms that we see most often and that are most familiar to our readers. We welcome community feedback (acronyms@ametsoc.org) on list composition and any necessary corrections and updates. Authors may still include expansions in their papers, and copy and technical editors will ensure that the spelling and formatting of these expansions and their acronyms are consistent with the lists. 

Standard technical abbreviations and acronyms

2D
two-dimensional
3D
three-dimensional
A
ABL
atmospheric boundary layer
ac
alternating current
AD
anno Domini
ADCP
acoustic Doppler current profiler
AGCM
atmospheric general circulation model
AGL
above ground level
ANOVA
analysis of variance
APEX
autonomous profiling explorer
AXBT
airborne XBT
AXCTD
airborne expendable CTD
B
BP
before present
BT (XBT)
bathythermograph (expendable)
C
CAPE
convective available potential energy
CAPPI
constant-altitude plan position indicator
CAT
clear-air turbulence
CBL
convective boundary layer
CCN
cloud condensation nuclei
CDF
cumulative distribution function
CFL
Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy
cgs
centimeter-gram-second
CIN
convective inhibition
cos
cosine
cpd
cycles per day
cpy
cycles per year
CTD
conductivity–temperature–depth
D
dc
direct current
DEM
digital elevation model
DJF
December–February
DSD
drop size distribution
E
EF scale
enhanced Fujita scale (EF#)
EM-APEX
electromagnetic autonomous profiling explorer
emf
electromotive force
EnKF
ensemble Kalman filter
ENSO
El Niño–Southern Oscillation
EOF
empirical orthogonal function
Eq.
equation
ERB
earth radiation budget
erf
error function
erfc
error function (complement of)
et al.
et alia/ii/iae (and others)
etc.
et cetera
ETS
equitable threat score
EUV
extreme ultraviolet
F
F scale
Fujita scale (F#)
FAR
false alarm rate (or ratio)
FDDA
four-dimensional data assimilation
FFT
fast Fourier transform
Fig.
figure
FM
frequency modulation
G
GBVTD
ground-based velocity track display
GCM
general circulation model
GIS
geographical information system
GPS
global positioning system
H
HF
high frequency
HVAR
hybrid variational scheme
Hz, cps
cycles per second
I
IGY
International Geophysical Year
Im
imaginary part
IOP
intensive observing/observation period
IR
infrared
ITCZ
intertropical convergence zone
IWC
ice water content
J
JEBAR
joint effect of baroclinicity and relief
JJA
June–August
K
KdV
Korteweg–de Vries
KPP
K-profile parameterization
L
LAI
leaf area index
LCL
lifting condensation level
LES
large-eddy simulation
LFC
level of free convection
lhs
left-hand side
LSM
land surface model
LST
local standard time
LT
local time
LWC
liquid water content
LWP
liquid water path
M
MAE
mean absolute error
MAM
March–May
MBL
marine boundary layer
MCS
mesoscale convective system
METAR
aviation routine weather report
min
minute
MJO
Madden–Julian oscillation
mks
meter-kilogram-second
mol wt
molecular weight
MOS
model output statistics
MSL
above mean sea level
MYJ
Mellor–Yamada–Janjić
N
NAO
North Atlantic Oscillation
NDVI
normalized difference vegetation index
NH
Northern Hemisphere
NWP
numerical weather prediction
O
ODE
ordinary differential equation
OGCM
ocean GCM
OLR
outgoing longwave radiation
OSSE
observing system simulation experiment
P
PBL
planetary boundary layer
PCA
principal component analysis
PDE
partial differential equation
PDF/pdf
probability density/distribution function
PDO
Pacific decadal oscillation
PDSI
Palmer drought severity index
POD
probability of detection
PoP
probability of precipitation
ppb
parts per billion
PPI
plan position indicator
ppm
parts per million
ppmv
parts per million by volume
PRF
pulse repetition frequency
psu
practical salinity unit
PV
potential vorticity
Q
QBO
quasi-biennial oscillation
QPE
quantitative precipitation estimation
R
R/V
research vessel
RAFOS
not an acronym; no expansion
Re
real part
RH
relative humidity
RHI
range–height indicator
rhs
right-hand side
rms/RMS
root-mean-square
rmse/RMSE
root-mean-square error
RT
radiative transfer
S
SACZ
South Atlantic convergence zone
SH
Southern Hemisphere
SI units
International System of Units
SLP
sea level pressure
SNR
signal-to-noise ratio
SOFAR
sound fixing and ranging
SOI
Southern Oscillation index
SON
September–November
SPCZ
South Pacific convergence zone
SSA
sea surface anomaly
SSH
sea surface height
SST
sea surface temperature
SSTA
sea surface temperature anomaly
STP
standard temperature and pressure
SVAT
soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer
SVD
singular value decomposition
SWE
snow water equivalent
T
THC
thermohaline circulation
TKE
turbulent/turbulence kinetic energy
TOA
top of the atmosphere
TPW
total precipitable water
U
UHF
ultrahigh-frequency
UHI
urban heat island
UTC
coordinated universal time
UTM
universal transverse Mercator
UV
ultraviolet
V
VAD
velocity–azimuth display
VHF
very high frequency
W
w.r.t.
with respect to
WES
wind–evaporation–SST [often with “feedback”]
WISHE
wind-induced surface heat exchange
WKBJ
Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin–Jeffreys (sometimes just WKB)
X
XCTD
expendable CTD
Y
yr
year

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Computer terms

ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Exchange
BUFR
Binary Universal Form for Representation of Meteorological Data
CD-ROM
compact disc read-only memory
CPU
central processing unit
CSV
comma-separated values
DOS
Disk Operating System
Fortran
Formula Translating System
FTP
file transfer protocol
HTML
Hypertext Markup Language
IDL
Interactive Data Language
IP
Internet protocol
LAN
local area network
MATLAB
matrix laboratory
MySQL
My Structured Query Language
netCDF
Network Common Data Form
OS/2
Operating System/2
PC
personal computer
PDF
Portable Document Format
RAM
random-access memory
ROM
read-only memory
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet protocol suite
UNIX/Unix
a computer operating system
URL
uniform resource locator
USB
universal serial bus
Wi-Fi
local area wireless network
XML
Extensible Markup Language

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Institutions and units of institutions

A
AFGL
Air Force Geophysics Laboratory
AOML
Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory
APDRC
Asia–Pacific Data-Research Center
ARL
Air Resources Laboratory
ASCE
American Society of Civil Engineers
B
BCC
Beijing Climate Center
BMRC
Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre
BOEM
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
BoM
Bureau of Meteorology (Australia)
C
CAWCR
Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research
CCCma
Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis
CCSR
Center for Climate System Research
CDAAC
COSMIC Data Analysis and Archive Center
CERFACS
Centre Européen de Recherche et de Formation Avancée en Calcul Scientifique
CIMSS
Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies
CIRA
Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere
CIRES
Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences
CLIVAR
Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability and Change (for U.S. CLIVAR group: U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability Program)
CLS
Collecte Localisation Satellites
CMC
Canadian Meteorological Centre
CMCC
Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici
CNES
Centre National d’Études Spatiales
CNRS
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
COLA
Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies
COSMO
Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling (maintains COSMO-Model or COSMO Model)
CPC
Climate Prediction Center
CPHC
Central Pacific Hurricane Center
CRU
Climatic Research Unit
CSIRO
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
CWB
Central Weather Bureau (Taiwan)
D
DAO
Data Assimilation Office (this is now the GMAO)
DKRZ
German Climate Computing Centre (Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum)
DOE
U.S. Department of Energy
DWD
German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst)
E
ECCO
Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean
ECMWF
European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
ESA
European Space Agency
ESRL
Earth System Research Laboratory
ETH
Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule
EUMETSAT
European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites
F
FAO
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FRCGC
Frontier Research Center for Global Change
G
GES DISC
Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center
GFDL
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory
GISS
Goddard Institute for Space Studies
GLERL
Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory
GMAO
Global Modeling and Assimilation Office
GPCC
Global Precipitation Climatology Centre
GSFC
Goddard Space Flight Center
I
IAP
Institute of Atmospheric Physics
IAPSO
The International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans
INGV
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia
INM
Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (Spain)
IPCC
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPRC
International Pacific Research Center
IPSL
L’Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace
IRI
International Research Institute for Climate and Society
J
JAMSTEC
Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology
JAXA
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
JCOMM
Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology
JISAO
Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean
JMA
Japan Meteorological Agency
JPL
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
JTWC
Joint Typhoon Warning Center
K
KNMI
Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut)
L
LASG
State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
LDEO
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
LEGOS
Laboratoire d’Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiale
LMD
Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique
LODYC
Laboratoire d’Océanographic Dynamique et de Climatologie (France)
M
MDL
Meteorological Development Laboratory
MEST
Korean Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology
MeteoSwiss
Swiss Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology
MPI
Max Planck Institute
MSC
Meteorological Service of Canada
N
NASA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NCAR
National Center for Atmospheric Research
NCDC
National Climatic Data Center
NCEI
National Centers for Environmental Information
NCEP
National Centers for Environmental Prediction
NDBC
National Data Buoy Center
NERC
Natural Environment Research Council
NESDIS
National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service
NGDC
National Geophysical Data Center
NHC
National Hurricane Center
NOAA
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NOC
National Oceanography Centre
NODC
National Oceanographic Data Center
NRL
Naval Research Laboratory
NSF
National Science Foundation
NSFC
National Natural Science Foundation of China
NSIDC
National Snow and Ice Data Center
NSSL
National Severe Storms Laboratory
NWS
National Weather Service
O
OAR
Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research
ONR
Office of Naval Research
P
PCMDI
Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison
PMEL
Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
PO.DAAC
Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center
Q
QCCCE
Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence
U
UCAR
University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
UKMO
Met Office
USDA
U.S. Department of Agriculture
USDM
U.S. Drought Monitor
USGS
U.S. Geological Survey
W
WCRP
World Climate Research Programme
WGCM
Working Group on Coupled Modelling
WHOI
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
WMO
World Meteorological Organization

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Programs, experiments, satellites, and instruments

20C3M
20th Century Climate in Coupled Models
20CR
Twentieth Century Reanalysis
A
ACARS
Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System
AERONET
Aerosol Robotic Network
AIRS
Atmospheric Infrared Sounder
AMIP
Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project
AMSR
Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer
AMSR-E
Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (EOS)
AMSU
Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit
APHRODITE
Asian Precipitation—Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Toward Evaluation of Water Resources
AR4
Fourth Assessment Report
ARM
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement
ASCAT
Advanced Scatterometer
ASOS
Automated Surface Observing System
ASTER
Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer
ASTEX
Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment
ATOVS
Advanced Television and Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder
AVHRR
Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
AVISO
Archiving, Validation, and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic Data
AWIPS
Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System
AWOS
Automated Weather Observing System
B
BAMEX
Bow Echo and Mesoscale Convective Vortex Experiment
BATS
Biosphere–Atmosphere Transfer Scheme
BOBMEX
Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment
BOMEX
Barbados Oceanographic and Meteorological Experiment
BOREAS
Boreal Ecosystem–Atmosphere Study
BSRN
Baseline Surface Radiation Network
C
CALIOP
Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization
CALIPSO
Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations
CAPS
Cloud, Aerosol, Precipitation Spectrometer
CART
Cloud and Radiation Testbed
CAS
Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer
CASES-99
1999 Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study
CBLAST
Coupled Boundary Layers Air–Sea Transfer
CERES
Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System
CFMIP
Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project
CFSR
Climate Forecast System Reanalysis
CHAMP
Challenging Minisatellite Payload
C-MAN
Coastal-Marine Automated Network
CMAP
Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation
CMIP
Coupled Model Intercomparison Project
CMIPx
phase x of CMIP [x = 3, 5, or 6 (planned)]
COADS
Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set
COARE
Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment
CoCoRaHS
Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network
CONTRAIL
Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace Gases by Airliner
COOP
Cooperative Observer Program
CORE
Co-ordinated Ocean–Ice Reference Experiments (run by CLIVAR)
COSMIC
Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (also Cosmic-Ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code)
COSMOS
Cosmic-Ray Soil Moisture Observing System
COSP
The CFMIP Observation Simulator Package
CRYSTAL-FACE
Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers–Florida-Area Cirrus Experiment
CSU–CHILL
Colorado State University–University of Chicago–Illinois State Water Survey
CuPIDO
Cumulus Photogrammetric, In Situ, and Doppler Observations
D
DART
Data Assimilation Research Testbed
DIMES
Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean
DMSP
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
DOCIMS
Drizzle and Open Cells in Marine Stratocumulus field study
DOTSTAR
Dropsonde Observations for Typhoon Surveillance near the Taiwan Region
DYCOMS II
Second Dynamics and Chemistry of the Marine Stratocumulus field study
DYNAMO
Dynamics of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (also Dynamics of North Atlantic Models)
E
EBAF
Energy Balanced and Filled
ECA&D
European Climate Assessment and Dataset
EC-EARTH
EC-Earth Consortium (and its Earth system model)
EDAS
Eta Data Assimilation System
ELDORA
Electra Doppler Radar
ENVI
Environment for Visualizing Images
E-OBS
European daily high-resolution gridded dataset
EOS
Earth Observing System
EOSDIS
Earth Observing System Data Information System
EPIC
Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere System
ER-2
no expansion (NASA aircraft)
ERA
ECMWF Re-Analysis (this prefix is now used by ECMWF as a product name without expansion)
ERA5
Fifth major global reanalysis produced by ECMWF
ERA-15
15-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis
ERA-40
40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis
ERA-Interim
European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis
ERBE
Earth Radiation Budget Experiment
ERBS
Earth Radiation Budget Satellite
EROS
Earth Resources Observation and Science
ERS
European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS roman but ERS-2 italic)
ERSST
Extended Reconstructed SST
ERSST.v3b
Extended Reconstructed SST, version 3b
ESWD
European Severe Weather Database
ETCCDI
Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices
ETM+
Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus
ETOP05
Elevation Data for Areas Greater than 50 degrees North
Etopo
no expansion (topographical maps of Canada developed by a company called Etopo)
ETOPO2v2
2-minute gridded elevations/bathymetry for the world
ETOPO5
5-minute gridded elevations/bathymetry for the world
F
FASTEX
Fronts and Atlantic Storm Track Experiment
FGGE
First Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Global Experiment
FIRE
First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment
FIRE-ACE
First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment-Arctic Cloud Experiment
FLAME
Family of Linked Atlantic Model Experiments
FSSP
forward scattering spectrometer probe (initial caps when referring to PMS product)
G
GAME
Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Asian Monsoon Experiment
GARP
Global Atmospheric Research Program
GATE
Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment
GCE
Goddard Cumulus Ensemble
GCSS
GEWEX Cloud System Study
GEBA
Global Energy Balance Archive
GECCO
German contribution to Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean
GEMPAK
General Meteorological Package
GEOS
Goddard Earth Observing System (not a satellite)
GEOSS
Global Earth Observation System of Systems
GERB
Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget
GEWEX
Global Energy and Water Exchanges project (formerly Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment)
GFS
Global Forecast System [operated by NCEP]
GHRSST
Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (without hyphen between high resolution, see https://www.ghrsst.org/)
GISST
Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset
GISTEMP
Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Surface Temperature Analysis
GLACE
Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment
GLDAS
Global Land Data Assimilation System
GLOWA
Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle
GMI
Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager
GODAE
Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment
GODAS
Global Ocean Data Assimilation System
GOES
Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-1)
GPCP
Global Precipitation Climatology Project
GPI
Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) precipitation index
GPM
Global Precipitation Measurement
GPROF
Goddard profiling algorithm
GR-1
see R-1
GR-2
see R-2
GRACE
Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment
GRIP
Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (also Greenland Ice Core Project)
GSI
Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation analysis system
GSMaP
Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation
GSOP
Global Synthesis and Observations Panel
GSS
Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud System Study
GSSTF
Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes
GSWP
Global Soil Wetness Project
GTOPO30
Global 30 arc s elevation dataset
H
HadCRUT4
Hadley Centre/Climatic Research Unit, version 4
HadISST
Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset
HadSLP1
First Hadley Centre Sea Level Pressure dataset
HAPEX-MOBILHY
Hydrological Atmospheric Pilot Experiment-Modelisation du Bilan Hydrique
HCDN
Hydro-Climatic Data Network
HIRS
High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder
HOAPS
Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data
HRDI
High Resolution Doppler Imager
HRST
Historical Russian soil temperature
HSB
Humidity Sounder for Brazil [on board Aqua]
HURDAT/HURDAT2
NHC "best track" hurricane database (no caps)
HVPS
high-volume precipitation spectrometer
HydroSHEDS
Hydrological Data and Maps Based on Shuttle Elevation Derivatives at Multiple Scales
I
IBTrACS
International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship
ICARTT
International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation
ICES
International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICESat
Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-1 but ICESat-2)
ICOADS
International Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IGBP
International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme
IHOP_2002
International H2O Project
IMERG
Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM
IMILAST
Intercomparison of mid latitude storm diagnostics (there is a space between mid and latitude; http://www.proclim.ch/imilast/index.html)
IMPROVE-2
second Improvement of Microphysical Parameterization through Observational Verification Experiment
ISCCP
International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project
ISLSCP
International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project
ISS
Integrated Sounding System (usually with NCAR)
J
JASMINE
Joint Air–Sea Monsoon Interaction Experiment
JONSWAP
Joint North Sea Wave Project
JRA-25
Japanese 25-year Reanalysis Project
JRA-55
Japanese 55-year Reanalysis
L
LBA
Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment
LEO
low-Earth orbiting (add hyphen after Earth if being used as an adjective)
LIS
Lightning Imaging Sensor
LMA
Lightning Mapping Array
LOWTRAN
Low-Resolution Atmospheric Transmission
M
MARGO
Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean Surface
MAS
MODIS Airborne Simulator
MAST
Monterey Area Ship Track
MASTER
MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator
M-CLASS
Mobile Cross-Chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System
MERRA
Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications
MetOp
Meteorological Operational satellites [series of satellites; for single satellites, e.g., Meteorological Operational Satellite-A (MetOp-A)]
M-GLASS
Mobile GPS/Loran Atmospheric Sounding System
MiKlip
Decadal Predictions (Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen)
MidCiX
Middle Latitude Cirrus Experiment
MISR
Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer
MLS
Microwave Limb Sounder
MODIS
Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
MODTRAN
moderate resolution atmospheric transmission
MOSES
Met Office Surface Exchange Scheme
MOZAIC
Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service
MPDATA
multidimensional positive definite advection transport algorithm
MRMS
Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) system
MSS
Multispectral Scanner
MSU
Microwave Sounding Unit
N
NARCCAP
North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program
NARR
North American Regional Reanalysis
NCODA
Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation
NEXRAD
Next Generation Weather Radar
NLDAS
North American Land Data Assimilation System
NLDN
National Lightning Detection Network
NMQ
National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE)
NPOESS
National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System
NSIPP
NASA’s Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project
NVAP
NASA’s Water Vapor Project
O
OAFlux
objectively analyzed air–sea fluxes
OAP
optical array probe
OPTRAN
optical path transmittance
OSCAR
Ocean Surface Currents Analyses–Real Time
P
(P)ALACE
(profiling) autonomous Lagrangian circulation explorer
PATMOS-x
Pathfinder Atmospheres–Extended
PCASP
passive cavity aerosol spectrometer probe
PERSIANN
Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks
PILPS
Project for the Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes
PIRATA
Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic
PIZA
Population-Interaction Zones for Agriculture
PMIP
Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project
PR
[TRMM] Precipitation Radar
PREDICT
Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud-systems in the Tropics
PRE-STORM
Preliminary Regional Experiment for STORM-Central
PROBE
Program for Boundary Layers in the Environment
PRUDENCE
Prediction of Regional Scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining European Climate Change Risks and Effects
Q
QuikSCAT
Quick Scatterometer (no italics, NASA is fine if included by author)
R
R-1
the Kalnay et al. (1996)/Kistler et al. (2001) NCEP–NCAR reanalyses (aka Reanalysis-1, Global Reanalysis 1, GR-1, GR1, R1, and NCEP-1)
R-2
NCEP–DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (also referred to as Reanalysis-2, Global Reanalysis 2, GR-2, GR2, R2, and NCEP-2)
RADS
Radar Altimeter Database System
RAINEX
Hurricane Rainband and Intensity Change Experiment
RAPID–MOCHA
Rapid Climate Change–Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heatflux Array
RASS
radio acoustic sounding system
READER
Reference Antarctic Data for Environmental Research
REAL
Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar
RTTOV
Radiative Transfer for the Television and Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS)
RUC
Rapid Update Cycle
S
SAGE
Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment
SCIAMACHY
Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography
SCSMEX
South China Sea Monsoon Experiment
SeaWiFS
Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor
SEVIRI
Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager
SHADOZ
Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes
SHEBA
Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean
SIRS
Solar and Infrared Radiation Station
SIRTA
Site Instrumental de Recherche en Télédétection Atmosphérique
SMAP
Soil Moisture Active Passive (mission)
SMMR
Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer
SMOS
Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (mission/satellite)
SNOTEL
Snowpack Telemetry
SODA
Simple Ocean Data Assimilation
SOLAS
Surface Ocean–Lower Atmosphere Study
S-Pol
S-band dual-polarization Doppler radar
SPOT
Système Pour l’Observation de la Terre
SRB
surface radiation budget (caps for the NASA/GEWEX database)
SRES
Special Report on Emissions Scenarios
SRTM
Shuttle Radar Topography Mission
SRTM30
SRTM global bathymetry and elevation data at 30 arc s resolution
SRTM30_PLUS
SRTM global bathymetry and elevation data at 30 arc s resolution with data voids filled
SSALTO
Segment Sol multimissions d’ALTimétrie, d’Orbitographie et de localisation précise
SSM/I
Special Sensor Microwave Imager
SSM/IS [Dept. of Defense]; SSMIS [NOAA]
Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder
SSM/T
Special Sensor Microwave Temperature Profiler
SSU
Stratospheric Sounding Unit
STORM-FEST
Storm-scale Operational and Research Meteorology-Fronts Experiment Systems Test
Suomi NPP/SNPP
Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership
SURFRAD
Surface Radiation Budget Network
T
TAO
Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (caps when buoy array is being discussed)
TAR
Third Assessment Report
TCPF
Tropical Cyclone Precipitation Feature database
TELEX
Thunderstorm Electrification and Lightning Experiment
TEPPS
Tropical East Pacific Process Studies
THORPEX
The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment
TIGGE
THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble
TIROS
Television and Infrared Observation Satellite
TM
Thematic Mapper (as in Landsat TM)
TMI
Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager
TMPA
Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis
TOGA COARE
Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment
TOMS
Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer
TOPEX
Ocean Topography Experiment [often (TOPEX)/Poseidon (T/P)]
TOVS
Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder
T-REX
Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment
TRITON
Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network
TRMM
Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission
U
UARS
Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite
UAV
unmanned aerial vehicle (caps are used for ARM Project’s Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle)
UNEP
United Nations Environment Programme
UNFCCC
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
USHCN
U.S. Historical Climatology Network
V
VAMOS
Variability of American Monsoon Systems
VAPIC
Water Vapour Profiling Inter-Comparison field experiment
VEMAP
Vegetation-Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Program
VIIRS
Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite
VIRS
Visible and Infrared Scanner
VORTEX
Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment
W
WCR
Wyoming Cloud Radar
WDSS-II
Warning Decision Support System–Integrated Information
WEAP
Weather Evaluation and Planning
WOCE
World Ocean Circulation Experiment
WSM3
WRF single-moment 3-class
WSM6
WRF single-moment 6-class microphysics scheme
WSR-88D
Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler

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Climatic, meteorological, oceanographic, and other models

A
ACCESS1.0
Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator, version 1.0
ACCESS1.3
Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator, version 1.3
ACOM2
Australian Community Ocean Model 2
AGISM
Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheet Model
ALADIN
Aire Limitée Adaptation Dynamique Développement International
ALEXI
Atmosphere–Land Exchange Inverse model
AMD
angular directional model
AOGCM
atmosphere–ocean general circulation model
ARCSYM
Arctic Regional Climate System Model
ARPEGE
Action de Recherche Petite Echelle Grande Echelle
ARPS
Advanced Regional Prediction System
ARW
Advanced Research version of WRF (see also WRF-ARW)
B
BCC_CSM1.1
Beijing Climate Center, Climate System Model, version 1.1
BCC_CSM1.1(m)
Beijing Climate Center, Climate System Model, version 1.1 (moderate resolution)
BCCR-BCM2.0
Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research Bergen Climate Model, version 2.0
BMRC BAM3
Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre Atmospheric Model, version 3
BNU-ESM
Beijing Normal University–Earth System Model
C
CAM3.0
Community Atmosphere Model, version 3.0
CanAM4 (or AGCM4)
Fourth Generation Canadian Atmospheric General Circulation Model
CanCM4 (or CGCM4)
Fourth Generation Canadian Coupled Global Climate Model
CanESM2
Second Generation Canadian Earth System Model
CCM
Community Climate Model (NCAR) [or Chemistry–Climate Model (NASA GISS)]; should be specified
CCSM2
Community Climate System Model, version 2
CCSM3
Community Climate System Model, version 3
CCSM4
Community Climate System Model, version 4
CDAS
Climate Data Assimilation System
CDR
PERSIANN–Climate Data Record
CESM1(BGC)
Community Earth System Model, version 1 (biogeochemistry, or carbon cycle)
CESM1(CAM5)
Community Earth System Model, version 1 (Community Atmosphere Model, version 5)
CESM1(CISM)
Community Earth System Model, version 1 (ice sheet model)
CESM1(FASTCHEM)
Community Earth System Model, version 1 [Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry (CAM-chem)]
CESM1(WACCM)
Community Earth System Model, version 1 (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model)
CFS or CFSv1
Climate Forecast System (sometimes used alone or in conjunction with version 1)
CFSv2
Climate Forecast System, version 2
CGCM
coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model
CGCM3.1
CCCma Coupled Global Climate Model, version 3.1 (may also include T47 or T63 for spectral resolution of model)
CICE
Los Alamos Sea Ice Model or Community Ice Code
CISM
Community Ice Sheet Model
CLIMBER
Climate and Biosphere Model
CLIO
Coupled Large-Scale Ice Ocean
CLIPER
climatology and persistence statisical models
CLM3
Community Land Model, version 3
CMAM
Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model
CMCC-CESM
Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici Carbon Cycle Earth System Model
CMCC-CM
Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici Climate Model
CMCC-CMS
Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici Stratosphere-resolving Climate Model
CMOC
Canadian Model of Ocean Carbon
CMORPH
CPC morphing technique
CNRM-CM3
Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques Coupled Global Climate Model, version 3
CNRM-CM5
Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques Coupled Global Climate Model, version 5
COAMPS
Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System
COART
Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Radiative Transfer Model
COCO4.5
Center for Climate System Research (CCSR) Ocean Component Model, version 4.5 [CCSR is now the Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute (AORI) at the U. of Tokyo]
CRCM
Canadian Regional Climate Model
CSIM
Community Sea Ice Model
CSIRO Mk3.0
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Mark 3.0
CSIRO Mk3.6.0
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Mark 3.6.0
CSM1.0
Climate System Model, version 1.0
CTEM
Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model
D
DARLAM
Division of Atmospheric Research Limited Area Model
DEMETER
Development of a European Multimodel Ensemble System for Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction
DGVM
dynamic global vegetation model
DISORT
Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer model
DOCN
Climatological Data Ocean Model
E
ECBilt/CLIO
Earth system models of intermediate complexity Climate deBilt/Coupled large-scale ice ocean
EC-EARTH
European Consortium Earth System Model
ECHAM5
no expansion used; it is very long and involves ECMWF, Hamburg, etc. (also ECHAM4)
ECHO-G
ECHAM4 and the global Hamburg Ocean Primitive Equation
ECPC-RSM
Experimental Climate Prediction Center Regional Spectral Model
EMBS
Episodic mixing and buoyancy-sorting models
EMIC
Earth system models of intermediate complexity
ENSEMBLES
Ensemble-Based Predictions of Climate Changes and Their Impacts
ESM
Earth system model
ESGF
Earth System Grid Federation
ESMF
Earth System Modeling Framework
F
FAIR 2.0
Framework to Assess International Regimes for Differentation of Commitments, version 2.0
FAMOUS
Fast Met Office/U.K. Universities Simulator
FASTEM
Fast Emissivity Model
FGOALS-g1.0
Flexible Global Ocean–Atmosphere–Land System Model, gridpoint version 1.0 (source reference is for "g2," but similar)
FGOALS-s2
Flexible Global Ocean–Atmosphere–Land System Model, second spectral version
FIO-ESM
First Institute of Oceanography (FIO) Earth System Model (ESM)
FOAM-LPJ
Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model–Lund Potsdam Jena Land Model
FROALS
Flexible Regional Ocean Atmosphere Land System
FSUGSM
Florida State University Global Spectral Model
G
GCM
general circulation model (OR global climate model)
GDAS
Global Data Assimilation System
GEFS
Global Ensemble Forecast System
GEOS-5
Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5
GFDL CM2.0
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model, version 2.0
GFDL CM2.1
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model, version 2.1
GFDL CM2.5
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model, version 2.5
GFDL CM3
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model, version 3
GFDL-ESM2G
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model with GOLD component
GFDL-ESM2M
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model with MOM, version 4 component
GFS
Global Forecast System [may include cycle (cy) and revision (r) information]
GISS-AOM
Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Atmosphere–Ocean Model [also GISS-Fast AOM (FAOM)]
GISS-E2-H
Goddard Institute for Space Studies Model E2, coupled with HYCOM (see expansion below)
GISS-E2-R
Goddard Institute for Space Studies Model E2, coupled with the Russell ocean model
GISS-E2CS-H/R
GISS Model E2 using cubed-sphere grid coupled with either HYCOM or Russell
GISS-E2-H/R-CC
GISS Model E2, coupled with either HYCOM or Russell and interactive terrestrial carbon cycle (and oceanic biogeochemistry)
GISS-ER
Goddard Institute for Space Studies Model E, coupled with the Russell ocean model
GOCART
Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model
GOLD
Generalized Ocean Layer Dynamics
H
HadAM3
Hadley Centre Atmosphere Model, version 3
HadCM3
Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3
HadGEM1
Hadley Centre Global Environment Model, version 1
HadGEMx-yy
Hadley Centre Global Environment Model, version x (x = 1, 2, or 3)
with yy configurations for HadGEM2 and HadGEM3:
A = Atmosphere and land
AO = A and O configurations
CC = Carbon Cycle (includes AO configuration with biogeochemistry, sometimes includes CCS, with S for stratospheric processes)
ES = Earth System (includes CC configuration with chemistry)
O = Ocean and sea ice
RA = Regional Atmosphere
HadRM3
Hadley Centre Regional Climate Model, version 3
HBV
Water Balance Department of the Hydrological Bureau (Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning) model
HiRAM
High Resolution Atmospheric Model (sometimes configurations -C180 and -C360 are included denoting 180 x 180 and 360 x 360 gridpoint resolutions, respectively)
HIRHAM
no expansion
HIRLAM
High Resolution Limited Area Model
HOPE
Hamburg Ocean Primitive Equation Model (sometimes with “-G” for “global”)
HSAMI
Service Hydrométéorologique Apports Modules Intermédiaires
HTESSEL
Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme of Surface Exchanges over Land
HWRF
Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting Model
HYCOM
Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model
HyMAP
Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform
HYSPLIT
Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model
I
IBIS
Integrated Biosphere Simulator
IFS
Integrated Forecast System [may include cycle (cy) and revision (r) information]
IMAGE
Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment
INGV-SXG
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, SINTEX-G
INM-CM3.0
Institute of Numerical Mathematics Coupled Model, version 3.0
INM-CM4.0
Institute of Numerical Mathematics Coupled Model, version 4.0
IPSL-CM4
L’Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace Coupled Model, version 4
IPSL-CM5A-LR
L’Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace Coupled Model, version 5A, low resolution
IPSL-CM5A-MR
L’Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace Coupled Model, version 5A, mid resolution
IPSL-CM5B-LR
L’Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace Coupled Model, version 5B, low resolution
ISBA
Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere
J
JSBACH
Jena Scheme for Biosphere–Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg
JULES
Joint UK Land Environment Simulator
L
LDAS
Land Data Assimilation System
LEAF-2
Land Ecosystem–Atmosphere Feedback model, version 2
LICOM
State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics/Institute of Atmospheric Physics (LASG/IAP) Climate Ocean Model
LIM
Louvain-la-Neuve Sea Ice Model
LMDZ
Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique zoom model
LOCH
Liège Ocean Carbon Heteronomous model
LOVECLIM
LOCH–VECODE–ECBILT–CLIO–AGISM Model (ESM)
M
MAGICC
Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Induced Climate Change
MAPS
Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System
MCIM
mixed cloud isotopic model
Meso-NH
no expansion
MIROC3.2 (hires)
Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate, version 3.2 (high resolution)
MIROC3.2 (medres)
Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate, version 3.2 (medium resolution)
MIROC4h
Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate, version 4 (high resolution)
MIROC5
Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate, version 5
MIROC-ESM
Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate, Earth System Model
MIROC-ESM-CHEM
Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate, Earth System Model, Chemistry Coupled
MITgcm
Massachusetts Institute of Technology General Circulation Model
MIUBECHOG
Meteorological Institute of the University of Bonn, ECHO-G Model
MM5
Fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model
MODFLOW
Modular three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model
MOM
Modular Ocean Model
MOSES
Met Office Surface Exchange Scheme
MPAS
Model for Prediction Across Scales
MPI-ESM-LR
Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, low resolution
MPI-ESM-MR
Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, medium resolution
MPI-ESM-P
Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, paleoclimate
MPI-OM
Max Planck Institute Ocean Model
MRF
Medium-Range Forecast Model (predecessor to GFS, 2002)
MRI-AGCM3.2H
Meteorological Research Institute Atmospheric General Circulation Model, version 3.2 (high resolution)
MRI-AGCM3.2S
Meteorological Research Institute Atmospheric General Circulation Model, version 3.2 (super-high resolution)
MRI-CGCM2.3.2a
Meteorological Research Institute Coupled Atmosphere–Ocean General Circulation Model, version 2.3.2a
MRI-CGCM1
Meteorological Research Institute Coupled Atmosphere–Ocean General Circulation Model, version 1
MRI-CGCM3
Meteorological Research Institute Coupled Atmosphere–Ocean General Circulation Model, version 3
MRI-ESM1
Meteorological Research Institute Earth System Model, version 1
N
NAM
North American Mesoscale Forecast System
NEMO
Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean
NMM
Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model [typically used in conjunction with WRF (WRF-NMM)]
Noah
NOAA/NCEP–Oregon State University–Air Force Research Laboratory–NOAA/Office of Hydrology land surface model
Noah-MP
Noah LSM with multiparameterization (or multiphysics) options
NOGAPS
Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System
NorESM1-M
Norwegian Earth System Model, version 1 (intermediate resolution)
NorESM1-ME
NorESM1-M with carbon cycling (and biogeochemistry)
O
OASIS 2.0
Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil, version 2.0
OGCM
Ocean General Circulation Model
OFES
Ocean General Circulation Model for the Earth Simulator
OISST2 or OISSTv2
Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature, version 2
OPA
Océan Parallélisé  [e.g., Océan Parallélisé (OPA) 8.1, now part of NEMO]
OPYC3
Ocean Isopycnal Model
ORCA
no expansion (an OGCM grid mesh, e.g., ORCA2 for 2° and ORCA05 for 0.5° projection)
ORCHIDEE
Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems
P
PCM
Parallel Climate Model
PERSIANN-CCS
PERSIANN–Cloud Classification System
POAMA-1
Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia
POEM
Potsdam Earth Model
POM
Princeton Ocean Model
POP
Parallel Ocean Program
PORT
Parallel Offline Radiative Transfer
PPE
perturbed physics ensemble
PRISM
Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model
PRMS
Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System
Q
QTCM1
Quasi-equilibrium Tropical Circulation Model
R
RACMO2
Regional Atmospheric Climate Model, version 2
RAMS
Regional Atmospheric Modeling System
RAP
Rapid Refresh
RCA
Rossby Center Regional Atmospheric Model
RCP
representative concentration pathway
RCM
regional climate model (refers to a generic regional climate model)
RegCM3
Regional Climate Model, version 3
ROMS
Regional Ocean Modeling System
RRTM
Rapid Radiative Transfer Model
RUC
Rapid Update Cycle
S
SAC-SMA
Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model
SECHIBA
Schématisation des Échanges Hydriques à l’Interface Biosphère et l'Atmosphère
SHIFOR
Statistical Hurricane Intensity Forecast model
SHIPS
Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme
SiB
Simple Biosphere Model
SINTEX
Scale Interaction Experiment
SINTEX-F
SINTEX–Frontier Research Center for Global Change (FRCGC) model
SINTEX-G
see INGV-SXG
SOM
slab ocean model
SWAT
Soil and Water Assessment Tool
T
TOPMODEL
not an acronym; no expansion
TRIFFID
Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics
TPXO
Oregon State University TOPEX/Poseidon Global Inverse Solution tidal model
U
UVic ESCM
University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model
V
VECODE
Vegetation Continuous Description
VIC
Variable Infiltration Capacity model
W
WACCM
Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model
WRF
Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model; Model after acronym per developers
WRF-ARW
Advanced Research version of WRF (see also ARW)

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