Weekly Ocean News
21-25 August 2017
- The "Great North American Eclipse" -- The "Great North American Eclipse" will occur on Monday (21 August 2017), when the moon will pass in front of the Sun and create a total solar eclipse that will travel across the North American continent from Oregon on the Pacific Coast to South Carolina on the Atlantic Coast.
- NASA is funding several science teams to conduct scientific experiments during the solar eclipse. Eleven ground-based science investigations will be conducted across the nation, with three looking at the response of the ionosphere (the ionized layer of the Earth's atmosphere at altitudes between 50 and 400 miles above the surface).
[NASA Goddard Space Flight Center]
- NASA and the GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) Program are encouraging the public to make observations of the atmosphere on the day of the total solar eclipse as the eclipse path passes from west to east across the nation. The public is invited to make observations of the clouds (type and amount of cover) and air temperature and then post their results using a special GLOBE Observer app. [Globe Observer]
- NASA has provided five tips for photographing the total eclipse.
[NASA Goddard Space Flight Center]
- NOAA's fleet of geosynchronous and polar orbiting satellites will track the path of the moon's shadow across the United States. The newest satellite, GOES-16, should provide still images and animations of the event beginning as the eclipse shadow reaches the Oregon coast. Special NOAA and NASA websites will be available for these images and animations. [NOAA News]
- Changes in temperature, winds, solar radiation intensity and other atmospheric variables accompanying the eclipse's shadow can be monitored across the nation's midsection by automated mesonet weather stations located in several states. Check the sites in Kansas, Kentucky and Nebraska.
- The National Weather Service has an informative webpage entitled "2017 Total Solar Eclipse" http://www.weather.gov/source/crh/eclipse.html that contains an interactive map allowing the user to obtain current weather forecasts along the eclipse path.
- Monday's total solar eclipse will provide a team of scientists from NOAA Research's Global Systems Division an opportunity to test an experimental version of a short-term weather model designed to predict subtle changes in the weather caused by moon blotting out the incoming solar radiation. Temperature, humidity, wind and cloud data collected from the National Weather Service's weather observation network will be fed into the model. [NOAA Office of Oceanic & Atmospheric Research News]
- Follow the recommended eclipse viewing safety rules provided on the NOAA and NASA websites to protect your eyes from potential damage. EJH
- Higher than normal ocean tides anticipated this coming week along nation's coasts -- According to the NOAA National Ocean Service's High Tide Bulletin for Summer 2017, higher than average tides are expected between 19 and 22 August
for most of the Pacific Coast of the US, stretching southward from Washington south to California and along the nation's Atlantic Coast, running from New Jersey southward to Florida's East Coast. Higher than average tides also can be expected surrounding Hawaii and the US Pacific Islands.
A new moon occurring on Monday, 21 August, coupled with lunar perigee (when the Moon is closest to Earth) occurring a little more than three days earlier (on the 18st), is responsible for the perigean spring tide that creates higher than normal high tides. [NOAA National Ocean Service News]
- Understanding the meaning of sea level and its changes -- NOAA recently posted an Explainer feature that defines several terms used to describe sea level (global sea level, local sea level and mean sea level). Knowledge of these terms is important for answering several questions that involve measurement of sea level, the changes in sea level, relating sea level changes with a changing climate and in how changes in sea level would affect the public. [NOAA News]
- Worldwide GLOBE at Night 2017 Campaign is underway -- The eighth in the series of GLOBE at Night citizen-science campaigns for 2017 will continue through Wednesday, 23 August. GLOBE at Night is a worldwide, hands-on science and education program designed to encourage citizen-scientists worldwide to record the brightness of their night sky by matching the appearance of a constellation (Hercules in the Northern Hemisphere and Sagittarius in the Southern Hemisphere) with the seven magnitude/star charts of progressively fainter stars. Activity guides are also available. The GLOBE at night program is intended to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution. The next series in the 2017 campaign is scheduled for 12-21 September 2017. [GLOBE at Night]
- Paddling at eight fantastic places in the National Marine Sanctuaries system -- NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries recently produced a list of eight fantastic places in which to paddle a canoe, kayak or paddleboard within the National Marine Sanctuaries system. This underwater-park system consists of 13 national marine sanctuaries and two marine national monuments distributed across the US waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes designed to protect the nation's natural and cultural marine resources. The prepared list is organized in terms of difficulty ranging from beginner to expert levels. [NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries News]
- Free admission into the National Parks -- This Friday, 25 August 2017 has been designated by the National Park Service as a fee-free day in honor of its 101st Birthday. This fee waiver will cover entrance and commercial tour fees in many of the national parks and monuments administered by the Park Service. [National Park Service Fee Free Days]
- Ocean charts, units, location and time -- Please
read this week's Supplemental
Information…In Greater Depth for a description of a several
types of oceanographic charts along with the definitions of some units
commonly used in ocean science to locate positions on the Earth's
surface and to identify time.
- Eye on the tropics --- During the last week several named tropical cyclones (low pressure systems that form over tropical ocean waters, with near surface maximum sustained winds that intensify to tropical storm- or hurricane-force status) developed in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins of the Northern Hemisphere:
- In the North Atlantic Basin (that also includes the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico), Tropical Storm Gert traveled generally northward well off the Southeast Atlantic coast of the United States at the start of last week. Gert became the second Atlantic hurricane of 2017 late Monday night, as it was located approximately 445 miles west of Bermuda. Curving toward the northeast, Gert intensified to become a category 2 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale as maximum sustained surface winds reached 100 mph. At that time, Hurricane Gert was approximately 410 miles to the south of Halifax, Nova Scotia. As Gert continued to travel to the northeast over the cooler waters of the North Atlantic, it weakened and lost its tropical characteristics by late Thursday afternoon as the Post-Tropical Cyclone Gert passed approximately 365 miles to the east-southeast of Cape Race, Newfoundland. Satellite images and additional information on Hurricane Gert are available from the NASA Hurricane Page.
An area of low pressure formed to the east of the Lesser Antilles in the western tropical Atlantic last Thursday morning and intensified during the day to become Tropical Storm Harvey, the eighth named tropical cyclone of 2017 in the North Atlantic basin by late Thursday afternoon. At that time, the center of Tropical Storm Harvey was moving westward and was located approximately 250 miles to the east of Barbados. Harvey continued to travel westward as a minimal tropical storm on Thursday night and into Friday, before weakening into a tropical depression and then tropical wave, approximately 760 miles to the east of Cabo Gracias a Dios on the Nicaragua- Honduras border. NASA Hurricane Page has additional information and satellite images for Tropical Storm Harvey.
- In the eastern North Pacific basin, Tropical Storm Jova became a remnant low and dissipated at the start of last week as it was located approximately 650 miles to the west-southwest of Cabo San Lucas at the southern tip of Mexico's Baja California Peninsula.
The thirteenth tropical depression of 2017 in the eastern North Pacific formed on Friday morning approximately 700 miles to the southwest of Cabo San Lucas, Mexico. Traveling toward the west, this tropical depression (called TD-13E) strengthened to become Tropical Storm Kenneth on Friday evening. Over the weekend, Kenneth continued its travels toward the west and strengthened to become Hurricane Kenneth, the sixth hurricane in the eastern Pacific for 2017, by early Sunday morning. At that time Hurricane Kenneth was located 1225 miles to the west of Cabo San Lucas. As of midafternoon on Sunday, had continued to intensify, becoming a category 2 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Current forecasts indicate Hurricane Kenneth should strengthen slightly on Monday before beginning to weaken. Kenneth should curve slowly to a direction toward the west-northwest. Additional information and satellite imagery is available for TD-13E (prior to becoming Tropical Storm Kenneth) on the NASA Hurricane Page.
- In the western North Pacific basin, Typhoon Banyan was a category 2 typhoon (on the Saffir-Simpson Scale) that was moving toward the north-northwest at the beginning of last week approximately 400 miles to the northwest of Wake Island. By Wednesday, Typhoon Banyan had weakened as it curved toward the north-northeast and was being torn apart by wind-shear (rapid changes in wind speed and/or direction over relatively short distances). At that time, it was located approximately 1130 miles to the north of Wake Island. See the NASA Hurricane Pag for additional information and satellite images on
Over this past weekend, a tropical depression formed that soon became Tropical Storm Hato over the waters of the Philippine Sea to the east-northeast of Luzon island in the Philippines. As of Monday (local time), Tropical Storm Hato was traveling toward the west-northwest as it was located approximately 400 miles to the south-southeast of Taipei, Taiwan. Current forecasts suggest the Tropical Storm Hato should continue traveling to the west-northwest, passing through the
Luzon Strait and then into the South China Sea before making possible landfall along the southeastern coast of China near Hong Kong on Wednesday.
- Getting close to study two endangered North Pacific right whales off Alaska -- A research biologist at NOAA's Alaska Fisheries Science Center recently posted a blog where she describes her experiences during the study of the critically endangered North Pacific right whale in the waters of the eastern Bering Sea off Alaska. She and her colleagues were able to encounter two right whales near the end of day of field work earlier this month. [NOAA Fisheries Alaskan Fisheries Science Center Blog]
- A deepwater Sixgill shark seen in the waters off California's Channel Islands -- Scientists with NOAA's National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science and partner research institutions recently posted a 56-second video of a Sixgill shark that was swimming along the seafloor at a depth of approximately 300 feet in the Pacific Ocean waters of the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. The video was made from photos collected by a remotely operated vehicle launched from the NOAA research vessel Bell M. Shimada. These sharks can descend to depths of 6500 feet during the day. [NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science News]
- Links found between land use, shoreline hardening and species abundance in Mid-Atlantic estuaries -- A team of researchers from NOAA, the Smithsonian Institution, the University of Delaware, the College of William and Mary, Baylor University and the Maryland Department of Natural Resources recently reported on their finding of a link between a reduction in the aquatic species abundance in the waters of the estuaries of the Middle Atlantic coastal states and the increased agricultural land use and hardened shorelines. The team investigated 587 sites in the Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay, along with coastal bays of Maryland and Delaware. Coastal hardening involves adding structures to the shoreline such as by building bulkheads, jetties and rip rap revetments. As many as 15 fish and crustacean taxa were used in the study. [NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science News]
- Critical habitat for Atlantic sturgeon designated -- During the last week NOAA Fisheries designated critical habitat in more than 3968 miles of coastal river habitat from Maine to Florida for the endangered or threatened Atlantic sturgeon. This critical habitat designation is designed to be an important step at ensuring their recovery. [NOAA News]
- Global temperature and ice cover for July 2017 reviewed -- Scientists at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
(NCEI) recently reported on their analysis of preliminary weather data collected during the month of July 2017:
- The combined global land and ocean surface temperature for July
2017 was the second highest for any July since sufficiently detailed global climate records
began in 1880, slightly lower than the record set in July 2016, by 0.09 Fahrenheit degrees. The July global combined temperature was 1.49 Fahrenheit degrees above the 20th
century (1901-2000) average of 60.4 degrees Fahrenheit.
When considered separately,
the average air temperature over the world oceans for July 2017 was the third highest for any July since
1880, while the temperature over the globe's land surfaces was the highest July reading on record.
[Editor's Note: Using a slightly different spatial averaging scheme for essentially the same set of station data as used by NCEI, scientists at NASA's Goddard Institute Space Studies determined that the July global temperature was statistically tied with that of July 2016. EJH]
- The researchers at the National Snow and Ice Data Center noted the areal extent of the Arctic sea ice
for July 2017 was
the fifth smallest for any July since satellite surveillance began in 1979. The extent of the Antarctic sea ice was the smallest July ice
extent in the 39-year record. [NOAA/NCEI
State of the Climate]
- A global map of Selected Significant Climate Anomalies and Events for July 2017 is available from NCEI.
- Updated El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Diagnostic Discussion is released -- Forecasters at NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (CPC) and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) released their monthly El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Diagnostic Discussion late last week. They reported an ENSO-neutral situation continued through July 2017, with near-average sea surface temperatures (SST) found across most of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. In addition, the atmospheric system remained close to average, suggestive of the continuation of an ENSO-neutral situation with neither El Niño nor La Niña conditions prevailing. (An El Niño is a "warm phase" event where above average SST values are found in the eastern equatorial Pacific, while a La Niña is a "cold phase" event with below-average SSTs in the eastern Pacific) Most of the prediction models used by the forecasters indicate a continuation of ENSO-neutral conditions through Northern Hemisphere's autumn (September through November). Therefore, forecasters give ENSO-neutral conditions an 85 percent chance of continuing through September, while decreasing to a 55 percent chance during the boreal winter season of 2017-2018. Therefore, the CPC's ENSO Alert System Status remained non active. [NOAA Climate Prediction Center]
Note: The criteria used for CPC's ENSO Alert System is available.
An ENSO blog was written by a researcher with NOAA's Climate Prediction Center that explains why CPC and IRI forecasters are anticipating the continuation of ENSO-neutral conditions through the remainder of 2017. She notes that sea surface temperatures across the equatorial Pacific during the last month were close to the long-term averages, indicating the ENSO-neutral conditions. Mention is also made of the atmospheric conditions of cloud cover and rainfall across the region as also suggestive of ENSO-neutral conditions. [NOAA Climate.gov News]
- An El Niño forecast from Down Under -- Forecasters with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology recently issued an updated ENSO forecast from a Southern Hemisphere perspective. They reported continuation of ENSO-neutral conditions. Since they foresee a continuation of these neutral conditions through the remainder of the calendar year of 2017, the Bureau's ENSO Outlook status remains "Inactive." [Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology]
- Two new regional ocean climatologies are released -- NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) recently announced that two new regional ocean climatologies have been added to the center's Ocean Climate Laboratory. These two high-resolution climatologies, which contain oceanic parameters, such as temperature, concentrations of dissolved salts (salinity), dissolved oxygen at various depths, averaged over at least a decade, are for the Northern North Pacific and for the Northeast Pacific. The two regional climatologies cover the region from the Bering Sea and the Aleutian Islands off Alaska eastward and southward along North America's West Coast to as far south as Mexico's Baja California Peninsula. The information that can be extracted from these climatologies would be important for assessing long-term atmospheric and oceanic climate change, as well as for monitoring regional marine ecosystems. [NOAA NCEI News]
- An All-Hazards Monitor -- This Web portal provides the user information from NOAA's National Weather Service, FAA and FEMA on
current environmental events that may pose as hazards such as tropical
weather, fire weather, marine weather, severe weather, drought and
floods. [NOAA/NWS Daily Briefing]
- Earthweek -- Diary of the Planet [earthweek.com].
Concept of the Week: Touring the
AMS Ocean Studies RealTime Ocean Portal
You are embarking on a study of
the world ocean and the role of the ocean in the Earth system. This
unique teacher enhancement course focuses on the flow and
transformations of energy and water into and out of the ocean, the
internal properties and circulation of the ocean, interactions between
the ocean and the other components of the Earth system, and the
human/societal impacts on and responses to those interactions.
Throughout this learning experience, you will be using the RealTime Ocean Portal to access and interpret a variety of
environmental information, including recent observational data. The
objective of this initial Concept of the Week is to
explore features of the RealTime Ocean Portal website.
On Monday of each week of the course, we will post the current Weekly Ocean News that includes Ocean in
the News (a summary listing of recent events related to the
ocean), Concept of the Week (an in-depth analysis
of some topic related to the ocean in the Earth system), and Historical
Events (a list of past events such as tsunamis or specific
advances in the understanding of oceanography). When appropriate, a
feature called Supplemental Information-In Greater Depth will be provided on some topic related to the principal theme of the
You will use the RealTime Ocean Portal to
access and download the weekly "Current Ocean Studies" that complement Investigations found in your Ocean
Studies Investigations Manual. These materials should be
available Monday morning. Click the appropriate links to download and
print these electronic Current Ocean Studies and answer forms as well
as your Chapter Progress and Investigations Response forms.
The body of the RealTime Ocean Portal provides
links to the Earth System, information on Physical & Chemical,
Geological, and Biological aspects of the ocean, Atmosphere/Ocean
Interaction, the Great Lakes, and extras-a glossary of terms, maps and
educational links. Following each section is a link to other sites that
examine the various subsystems of the Earth system. Let's take a quick
tour to become more familiar with the RealTime Ocean Portal.
Under Physical & Chemical, click
Surface Temperatures. This image uses a color scale
to depict the global pattern of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) (in
degrees Celsius) averaged over a recent 7-day period and based on
measurements by infrared sensors onboard Earth-orbiting satellites.
(Depending on your browser, you may have to place your mouse cursor on
the slide bar to the right and scroll down to view the entire image.)
Compare SSTs in the Northern Hemisphere with those in the Southern
Hemisphere. Return to the RealTime Ocean Portal.
Under Geological, click on Current
Earthquake Activity. The USGS Current World
Seismicity page provides a global map of the locations of seismic
(earthquake) events color-coded for the past seven days. The size of
the squares represents the magnitude of recent earthquakes. Note how
earthquakes are concentrated along the margin of the Pacific Ocean.
Details of recent earthquakes can be found by clicking on their map
squares. Return to the RealTime Ocean Portal.
The ocean is home to a wide variety of habitats and organisms.
Under Biological, click on Ocean
"Color" (Productivity). This is
a satellite-derived (SeaWiFS) color-coded map of biological
productivity in the surface waters of the world ocean is averaged from
October 1978 to date. Orange and red indicates the highest
productivity, while dark blue and violet indicate the lowest
productivity. Note the vast areas of relatively low productivity over
the central regions of the subtropical ocean basins. Individual months
within this period may be chosen for viewing. Now return to the RealTime Ocean Portal.
Under Atmosphere/Ocean Interaction, click
Tropical Rainfall. The TRMM/GPM (Tropical
Rainfall Measuring Mission) page includes color-coded maps of
the Monthly Mean Rainrate (in mm per day) across the tropics for the
last 30 days ending on the present date. Changes in rainfall are linked
to large-scale shifts in the atmosphere/ocean circulation in the
tropics. Now return to the RealTime Ocean Portal.
Take a few minutes when you have time to browse the other data
and information sources available via the RealTime Ocean Portal. Return frequently to learn more about the many resources on
the ocean in the Earth system. Bon voyage!
- 22 August 1770...James Cook's expedition landed on the east coast of Australia. (Wikipedia)
- 22 August 1787...Inventor John Fitch demonstrated his steamboat on the Delaware River to delegates of the Continental Congress. Its top speed was 3 mph. These tests were completed years before Fulton built his steamboat. (Today in Science History)
- 22 August 1780...HMS Resolution, Captain James Cook's ship, returned to England; Cook had been killed on Hawaii during the voyage. (Wikipedia)
- 22 August 1962...The 506-ft long NS Savannah, the world's first civilian nuclear-powered ship, completed its maiden voyage from Yorktown, VA to Savannah, GA; the ship was named for the SS Savannah, the first steam-powered ship to cross the Atlantic in 1819. (Wikipedia) (Today in Science History)
- 22 August 1893: Four hurricanes are observed in the Atlantic Ocean at the same time, a record at that time. Over a century would pass before four hurricanes would again rage together over the Atlantic in 1998. (National Weather Service files)
- 22 August 1994...The USCG icebreaker Polar Sea and the CCCS Louis S. Ste Laurent became the first "North American surface ships" to reach the North Pole. (USCG Historian's Office)
- 23 August 1540...The French explorer Jacques Cartier landed near Quebec in his voyage to Canada. (Wikipedia)
- 23 August 1893...New York City was hit by a Category 2 hurricane (on the Saffir-Simpson Scale) that brought a 30-foot storm surge to the southern shore of Long Island. (National Weather Service files)
- 23 August 1899...The first wireless message from a ship to the shore "Sherman is sighted", was received in the US. The US Lightship No. 70, San Francisco , announced the arrival of the U.S. Army troopship Sherman to the crowd assembled at the Cliff House. Reporters from the San Francisco Call relayed this information to a city awaiting the return of its hometown regiment from the battlefields of the Spanish-American War. The lightship, miles out at sea in deep fog, relayed this message via wireless telegraphy (later known as radio) through the fog to the Cliff House. This was the first 19th-century working use of wireless telegraphy outside of England. The method was still primitive, using sparks to emit intermittent radio waves and code messages. (Wikipedia) (Today in Science History)
- 23 August 1933...The Chesapeake-Potomac hurricane made landfall over Nag's Head, NC and moved over Norfolk, VA, Chesapeake Bay and Washington, DC. Winds gusted to 88 mph at Norfolk, VA. A tide seven feet above normal flooded businesses in Norfolk, and damage in Maryland was estimated at $17 million. Sixty percent of Atlantic City, NJ was flooded as was 10 square miles of southwest Philadelphia, PA. Forty seven people were killed and damage was estimated at $47 million (in depression-era dollars) (David Ludlum) (Intellicast)
- 23-24 August 1992...Hurricane Andrew on its way to Florida with winds of 150 mph, struck northern Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas. The storm surge reached 23 feet. Total damage on the islands topped $250 million. At about 5 AM on the 24th, Andrew made landfall near Homestead, FL with a central pressure of 922 mb (27.22 in. of mercury). Fowey Rocks coastal marine buoy recorded maximum sustained winds of 141 mph and a peak gust of 169 mph and the National Hurricane Center in Coral Gables had sustained winds of 115 mph with a peak gust of 164 mph. A record storm surge of 16.7 feet occurred in Biscayne Bay. Homestead AFB was practically wiped out. More than 120,000 homes were damaged or destroyed, leaving 250,000 homeless. Forty-one people died and property damage exceeded $25 billion, making Andrew by far the most costly hurricane in U.S. history until Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Andrew was the third most intense hurricane to strike the mainland behind Camille (1969) and the Labor Day Hurricane (1935) (Intellicast)
- 23-24 August 1998...Almost 18 inches of rain deluged Del Rio, TX between 8 AM on the 23rd and 6 AM on the 24th because of stalled remnants of Tropical Storm Charley. Violent flash flooding from San Felipe Creek left residential lots swept bare of homes, with asphalt streets gone. Nine people were killed and 150 injured. (Accord's Weather Guide Calendar)
- 23 August 2005...Hurricane Katrina formed from Tropical Depression Twelve over the southeastern Bahamas. Katrina would become the costliest ($81.2 billion) and one of the most deadly hurricanes (1,836 lives) in U.S. history. (National Weather Service files)
- 24-29 August 1785...Hurricane ravaged the Eastern Caribbean Sea from St. Croix, Virgin Islands to Cuba during the last week of August. Over 142 people were reported dead from the storm's impact. (The Weather Doctor)
- 24 August 1912...The US Congress gave effect to the convention between United States, Great Britain, Japan and Russia prohibiting taking of fur seals and sea otters in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea by authorizing the President "to cause a guard or patrol to be maintained in the waters frequented by the seal herd or herds of seal otter." (USCG Historian's Office)
- 24 August 1988...A tropical depression drenched the Cabo Rojo area of southwestern Puerto Rico with up to ten inches of rain. San Juan received 5.35 inches of rain. (Storm Data) (The National Weather Summary)
- 24 August 1992...Hurricane Andrew slammed into south Florida, devastating the community of Homestead with 181-mph winds. With a central pressure at landfall of 922 millibars (27.22 inches of mercury), which at the time was the third lowest ever recorded in a hurricane at landfall in the United States. Camille (1969) and the Labor Day Hurricane (1935) were more intense. In 2005, Hurricane Katrina became the third most intense land falling hurricane with a 920-millibar pressure reading (or 27.17 in Hg) when it reached the Louisiana Gulf Coast. (The Weather Doctor)
- 25 August 1885...A severe hurricane struck South Carolina causing $1.3 million damage at Charleston. (David Ludlum)
- 25 August 1927...The August Gale, a hurricane, raged across the East Coast, crossing the Cabot Strait between Nova Scotia and Newfoundland during the early morning hours. Hundreds of small boats in Newfoundland ports are among the storm's victims. (The Weather Doctor)
- 25 August-7 September 1979...Hurricane David crossed the island of Dominica on the 29th, with winds to 145 mph. Roseau, the capital, was devastated. Fifty-six people were killed on Dominica and 60,000 of the island's 80,000 residents were made homeless. About three-quarters of the coconut and banana crop were destroyed. The central pressure in David fell to 924 mb (27.28 in.) on the 30th as it moved south of Puerto Rico. At that time, highest sustained winds reached 173 mph. On the 31st, winds of 150 mph from Hurricane David brought over $1 billion in damage to Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, killing over 1200. (The Weather Doctor) (Accord's Weather Guide Calendar)
- 26 August 1883... Krakatau (or Krakatoa) Volcano exploded in the East Indies. The explosion was heard more than 2500 miles away, and every barograph around the world recorded the passage of the air wave, up to seven times. Giant waves, 125 feet high and traveling 300 mph, devastated everything in their path, hurling ashore coral blocks weighing up to 900 tons, and killing more than 36,000 persons. Volcanic ash was carried around the globe in thirteen days producing blue and green suns in the tropics, and then vivid red sunsets in higher latitudes. The temperature of the Earth was lowered one degree for the next two years, finally recovering to normal by 1888. (David Ludlum)
- 26 August 1949...A hurricane made landfall at Delray Beach, FL. Winds reached 153 mph at the Jupiter Lighthouse before the anemometer failed. The hurricane caused $45 million damage to crops, and caught the Georgia and South Carolina coast resulting in another $2 million in damage. (David Ludlum)
- 26 August 1992...Hurricane Andrew made its second landfall along the Louisiana coast near Burns Point, as a category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Morgan City recorded wind gusts of 108 mph. Hammond was deluged with nearly a foot of rain. Total additional damage was estimated at $1.8 billion. Andrew, which had made its initial US landfall in South Florida on the 24th, was the most costly natural disaster in US history, with total damage reaching up to $30 billion. Additionally, record hurricane evacuation of 2.4 million people took place in Florida and Louisiana. (Intellicast) (Accord's Weather Guide Calendar)
- 27 August 1881...A Category 3 hurricane made landfall near Savannah, GA and is estimated to have killed about 700 people. (National Weather Service files)
- 27 August 1883...The after effects caused by the Krakatau
explosion in Indonesia, including large tsunami waves of up to 300
feet, killed 36,000 people. The tsunami waves were powerful enough to
cross the Indian Ocean and travel beyond Cape Horn. The most powerful
blast was the most violent known in human history, was loud enough to
be heard in Australia, and the shock wave was registered by barometers
England. The huge amount of volcanic dust thrust high into the
stratosphere eventually traveled around the world. The dust blocked
sunlight causing temperature drops and chaotic weather patterns for
several years afterward. (Wikipedia) (Today in Science History)
- 27 August 1893...The first of three great hurricanes that
year struck South Carolina drowning more than 1000 persons in a storm
surge at Charleston. This Category 3 (possibly Category 4) hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale slammed into Savannah, GA with a 16-foot storm surge. Landfall was just south of Savannah, GA where sustained winds hit 120 mph. (David Ludlum) (National Weather Service files)
- 27 August 1964...Hurricane Cleo battered Miami and the
South Florida area, marking the first direct hit for Miami in fourteen
years. Sustained winds of 100 mph gusted to 135 mph, and the hurricane
caused $125 million in damage. (David Ludlum)
- 27 August 1971...Tropical Storm Doria swept directly over New York City, flooding subways in the Big Apple. (National Weather Service files)
- 27 August 1995...Remains of Tropical Storm Jerry unloaded
12.32 inches of rain in 24 hours in Greer, SC, a record for 24 hours,
for a rain event and for August. At Antreville, 17.00 inches fell in 24
hours, setting a 24-hour rainfall record for the Palmetto State.
- 27 August 2005...Hurricane Katrina reached Category 3 intensity in the Gulf of Mexico about 335 miles south-southeast of the mouth of the Mississippi River with maximum sustained winds of 115 mph. (National Weather Service files)
Return to RealTime Ocean Portal
Prepared by DS Ocean Central Staff and Edward J. Hopkins,
© Copyright, 2017, The American Meteorological Society.